Curitiba, Brazil, developed the first bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the 1970s, a model replicated in more than 200 cities worldwide. Dedicated BRT lanes along main thoroughfares—separate corridors from automobiles—were installed for fifty times less than the cost of rail. Bus stops were designed to be more like metro stations with multiple points of entry and exit.
All mass transit modes use scale to their emissions advantage. When someone opts to ride a streetcar, bus, or subway rather than driving a car or hailing a cab, greenhouse gases are averted.
The benefits go beyond emissions reduction and accrue to all city dwellers, not just those who use mass transit. By reducing the volume of cars, mass transit relieves traffic congestion. With fewer people driving, fewer accidents and fatalities take place. Overall, air pollution drops. Mass transit also makes cities more equitable by providing mobility to those who cannot drive.
Urban transport is the single largest source of transportation-related emissions, and growing. With good urban design, mass transit can help embed mobility, livability, and sustainability in cities.
Technical summaries for each solution will be available May 1, 2017.