Correction: Thirty-six gigatons is the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in 2016.
Correction: In Germany in 2015, bottlenecks in the grid caused 4,100 gigawatt-hours of wind electricity to be wasted—enough energy to power 1.2 million homes for a year.
Correction: An increase in onshore wind from 3 to 4 percent of world electricity use to 21.6 percent by 2050 could reduce emissions by 84.6 gigatons of carbon dioxide.
Correction: Germany currently produces 7 percent of its energy from biomass.
Correction: Romm summarizes the perspective of the International Energy Agency (IEA): nuclear can play “an important but limited role.”
Correction: China [...] is committing to a combined wind and solar capacity of 320 gigawatts by 2020.
Correction: The cumulative result: 10.3 gigatons of carbon dioxide emissions avoided at a cost of $217 billion.
Correction: If in-stream hydro grows to supply 3.7 percent of the world’s electricity by 2050, it can reduce 4 gigatons of carbon dioxide emissions and save $568.4 billion in energy costs.
Correction: Sweden is among the leaders.
Correction: In Europe [...] a 50 percent recycling directive is in place for the year 2020.
Correction: Ranked with countries, food waste would be the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases globally, just behind the United States and China.
Correction: [A]n acre of multistrata agroforestry can achieve rates of carbon sequestration that are comparable to those of afforestation and forest restoration—2.8 tons per acre per year, on average.
Correction: One study suggests every acre of agroforestry can prevent deforestation of five to twenty forest acres.
Correction: It is one approach within the broader umbrella of agroforestry and revives an ancient practice, now common on over 350 million acres worldwide.
Correction: Farms are seeing organic matter levels rise from a baseline of 1 to 2 percent up to 5 to 8 percent over ten or more years. Every percent of carbon in the soil represents 8.5 tons per acre.
Correction: The United Nations Environment Programme estimates that a 20 percent improvement in nutrient use would eliminate more than 20 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer and produce potential savings of $50 billion to $400 billion.
Correction: Conservation agriculture sequesters a relatively small amount of carbon—an average of half a ton per acre.
Revision: It was the hallmark of an agricultural system that differs dramatically from pervasive practices today: the wholesale conversion of Amazonian forest to annual crops, such as soybeans for livestock feed. When forest is cleared and vegetation burned, a residual layer of carbon remains, but only for a short period of time.
Correction: Today, 89 percent of cultivated land, about 3 billion acres, is devoted to annuals. Of the remaining land in perennial crops, 116 million acres are used for perennial staple crops.
Correction: Improved grazing typically sequesters a few hundred pounds of carbon per acre, but in some cases as much as three tons per acre.
Correction: Many who started at 1 percent organic matter are now at 6 to 8 percent, or more.
Correction: Brown has taken soil organic matter from 4 percent to 10 percent in six years.
Correction: The resulting emissions reductions could be 119.2 gigatons of carbon dioxide.
Correction: Originating in North America and migrating to Europe, smart thermostats occupy a fraction of the addressable market at present.
Correction: $74.2 BILLION NET COST
NOTE: This correction also applies on p. 223 and p. 224.
Deletion: Only carbon stored in soil organic matter and aboveground biomass is accounted for; below-ground biomass is not included.
Correction: China has by far the most high-speed rail lines—more than 50 percent of the total— followed by Western Europe and Japan.
Correction: Compared to driving or flying, it is the fastest way to travel between two points a few hundred miles apart and reduces carbon emissions up to 90 percent.
Correction: Cost estimates have doubled from $33 billion to $68 billion.
Correction: The tracks typically range from $15 million to $80 million per mile; and then there are bridges, tunnels, and viaducts.
Correction: $1.04 TRILLION NET COST
NOTE: This correction also applies on p. 223 and p. 225.
Correction: Those additional 315 million cars can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 4 gigatons by 2050, saving owners $1.76 trillion in fuel and operating costs over three decades.
Correction: China has more than 170,000 electric buses.
Correction: The pollutants that trail movement by flight—carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, water vapor in contrails, black carbon—are not.
Correction: Diesel trucks were first introduced in the 1930s, hit their stride in the 1950s, and now move roughly half of land freight.
Correction: If that increases to 621,000 miles by 2050, emissions from fuel use for freight operations alone can be reduced by 0.5 gigatons of carbon dioxide.
Correction: HFC substitutes are already on the market, including natural refrigerants such as propane and ammonia.
Correction: The Kigali accord ensures a step change is coming, and other practices focused on existing stocks could reduce emissions further.
Correction: HFCs are largely innocuous to the ozone layer, but they also are one of the most potent greenhouse gases known to humankind.
Revision: Our analysis includes emissions reductions that can be achieved through the management and destruction of refrigerants already in circulation. Over thirty years, containing 87 percent of refrigerants likely to be released could avoid emissions equivalent to 89.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide. Phasing out HFCs per the Kigali accord could avoid additional emissions equivalent to 25 to 78 gigatons of carbon dioxide (not included in the total shown here). The operational costs of refrigerant leak avoidance and destruction are high, resulting in a projected net cost of $903 billion by 2050.
Correction: Silvopasture is a common form of agroforestry, practiced today on over 350 million acres worldwide.
Correction: In a five-year study of intensive silvopasture in which trees were incorporated with grasses and Leucaena leucocephala, the rate of carbon sequestration was roughly three tons per acre, a high rate for any land use.
Correction: The kinetic energy of oceans, which surge with roughly 80,000 terawatt hours of power, is extraordinary. It is a staggering amount of energy—enough to power human needs four times over.
Correction: The United States effectively banned the cultivation of all types of hemp in 1937.
Correction: In the electric power generation industry, more people in the U.S. as of 2016 are employed by the solar industry than by gas, coal, and oil combined.
Current: Lifetime Savings
Correction: Net Savings
Current: Lifetime Savings
Correction: Net Savings
Addition: Jai Kumar Gaurav, MSc is a research analyst with eight years of experience working in the field of climate change mitigation and adaptation. He has worked on Clean Development Mechanism and Gold Standard certified voluntary emission reduction projects. He is also working on developing a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) proposal in the waste sector.
Addition: Jonathan Foley spent over two decades leading interdisciplinary, university-based programs focused on solving global environmental issues before becoming the Executive Director of the California Academy of Sciences, where he has been able to incite interest and excitement in the sciences in children and adults alike. He has published over 130 scientific articles, many op-eds, and has won numerous awards and honors, including the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (awarded by President Bill Clinton).
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