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References

We accumulated more than 5,000 references, citations, and sources in the process of researching and writing Drawdown. Below you will find the key notes cited in the book. Full bibliographies of all solutions will be available for download.


Electricity Generation (formerly Energy) – p. 1

Food – p. 37

Women and Girls – p. 75

Buildings and Cities – p. 83

Land Use – p. 107

Transport – p. 137

Materials – p. 157

Coming Attractions – p. 171


 

Electricity Generation

Liverpool…Burbo Bank Extension: Schwägerl, Christian. “Offshore Wind Energy is Booming in Europe.” Yale Environment 360. October 20, 2016.

314,000 wind turbines supply…electricity: GWEC. “Wind in Numbers.” http://www.gwec.net/global-figures/wind-in-numbers/; REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Ten million homes in Spain: GWEC, “Numbers.”

Investment in offshore wind: “Record $30bn year for Offshore Wind But Overall Investment Down.” Bloomberg New Energy Finance. January 12, 2017.

[history of wind power]: Hills, Richard L. Power from Wind: A History of Windmill Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.; “Timeline: The History of Wind Power.” The Guardian. October 17, 2008; DOE. “History of U.S. Wind Energy.” https://energy.gov/eere/wind/history-us-wind-energy.

2015…wind power [installations]: REN21, Renewables 2016.

[U.S.] wind energy potential: Elliott, D.L., L.L. Wendell, and G.L. Gower. An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 1991. 

fossil fuel…subsidies: Coady, David, Ian Parry, Louis Sears, and Baoping Shang. IMF Working Paper: How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2015. 

Current costs; “lowest cost source”: Hensley, John. “New Reports Highlight Bright, Low-Cost Future of Wind.” Into the Wind—the AWEA (blog). August 18, 2016; Kooroshy, Jaakko, Brian Lee, Franklin Chow, Stefan Burgstaller, Justus Schirmacher, Daniela Costa, Michael Lapides, and Alberto Gandolfi. The Low Carbon Economy: Technology in the Driver’s Seat. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. November 28, 2016.

[cost of] projects built in 2016: Hensley, “Future.”

Bloomberg New Energy Finance: Randall, Tom. “The World Nears Peak Fossil Fuels for Electricity.” Bloomberg. June 13, 2016.

United States…capacity factors: WINDExchange. “Potential Wind Capacity.” http://apps2.eere.energy.gov/wind/windexchange/windmaps/resource_potenti....

Liverpool…Burbo Bank Extension: Schwägerl, Christian. “Offshore Wind Energy is Booming in Europe.” Yale Environment 360. October 20, 2016.

314,000 wind turbines supply…electricity: GWEC. “Wind in Numbers.” http://www.gwec.net/global-figures/wind-in-numbers/; REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Ten million homes in Spain: GWEC, “Numbers.”

Investment in offshore wind: “Record $30bn year for Offshore Wind But Overall Investment Down.” Bloomberg New Energy Finance. January 12, 2017.

[history of wind power]: Hills, Richard L. Power from Wind: A History of Windmill Technology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.; “Timeline: The History of Wind Power.” The Guardian. October 17, 2008; DOE. “History of U.S. Wind Energy.” https://energy.gov/eere/wind/history-us-wind-energy.

2015…wind power [installations]: REN21, Renewables 2016.

[U.S.] wind energy potential: Elliott, D.L., L.L. Wendell, and G.L. Gower. An Assessment of the Available Windy Land Area and Wind Energy Potential in the Contiguous United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 1991. 

fossil fuel…subsidies: Coady, David, Ian Parry, Louis Sears, and Baoping Shang. IMF Working Paper: How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2015. 

Current costs; “lowest cost source”: Hensley, John. “New Reports Highlight Bright, Low-Cost Future of Wind.” Into the Wind—the AWEA (blog). August 18, 2016; Kooroshy, Jaakko, Brian Lee, Franklin Chow, Stefan Burgstaller, Justus Schirmacher, Daniela Costa, Michael Lapides, and Alberto Gandolfi. The Low Carbon Economy: Technology in the Driver’s Seat. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. November 28, 2016.

[cost of] projects built in 2016: Hensley, “Future.”

Bloomberg New Energy Finance: Randall, Tom. “The World Nears Peak Fossil Fuels for Electricity.” Bloomberg. June 13, 2016.

United States…capacity factors: WINDExchange. “Potential Wind Capacity.” http://apps2.eere.energy.gov/wind/windexchange/windmaps/resource_potenti....

outages or blackouts…economic losses: Saviva Research. “Microgrids and Distributed Energy Resource Management Software.” Saviva Research Review. April 2013.

blackouts [becoming] more frequent: Matthewman, Steve and Hugh Byrd. “Blackouts: A Sociology of Electrical Power Failure.” Social Space (2014): 1-25.

1.1 billion people [without] electricity: IEA and World Bank. Sustainable Energy for All 2015—Progress Toward Sustainable Energy. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2015.

[effective in] rural parts of Asia and Africa: IEA. World Energy Outlook 2010. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2010.

earth’s internal heat…energy generated: Fridleifsson, I.B., R. Bertani, E. Huenges, J. W. Lund, A. Ragnarsson, and L. Rybach. “The Possible Role and Contribution of Geothermal Energy to the Mitigation of Climate Change.” In IPCC Scoping Meeting on Renewable Energy Sources, Proceedings, edited by O. Hohmeyer and T. Trittin, 59-80. Luebeck, Germany, January 20-25, 2008.

Larderello, Italy…Piero Ginori Conti: Dipippo, Ronald. Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications, Case Studies and Environmental Impact. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2012.

[global] geothermal electricity generation: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016; Matek, Benjamin. 2016 Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production Report. Washington, D.C.: Geothermal Energy Association, 2016.

direct geothermal supplies heat: REN21, Renewables 2016; Matek, Geothermal.

prime geothermal conditions: Duffield, Wendell A., and J. H. Sass. Geothermal Energy: Clean Power from the Earth’s Heat. Menlo Park, CA: U.S. Geological Survey, 2003.

Iceland’s Blue Lagoon: Gipe, Paul. “Iceland: High Penetration of Renewables in the Modern Era.” Renewable Energy World. November 7, 2012.

emissions [vs.] a coal plant: Duffield and Sass, Geothermal Energy.

twenty-four countries [with] geothermal power: Matek, Geothermal.

El Salvador and the Philippines: World Bank. “Geothermal Energy: Expansion Well Underway in Developing Countries.” The World Bank. December 3, 2014.

Kenya…Great Rift Valley: World Bank. “Kenya’s Geothermal Investments Contribute to Green Energy Growth, Competitiveness and Shared Prosperity.” The World Bank. February 23, 2015.

U.S. geothermal plants: Matek, Geothermal.

39 countries could supply 100 percent: Gawell, Karl, Marshall Reed, and P. Michael Wright. Preliminary Report: Geothermal Energy, The Potential for Clean Power from the Earth. Washington, D.C.: Geothermal Energy Association, 1999.

6 to 7 percent of the world’s potential…tapped: Matek, Geothermal.

projections [of] undiscovered geothermal resources: Fridleifsson et al, “Possible.”

life cycle emissions [vs.] coal plants: Schlömer, S., et al. “Annex III: Technology-Specific Cost and Performance Parameters.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

outdoor air pollution…premature deaths: WHO. Burden of Disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014.

utility-scale…additions to solar PV capacity: IRENA. Letting in the Light: How Solar PV Will Revolutionize the Electricity System. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency, 2016.

[proposed] Chernobyl…solar farm: Vidal, John. “Chernobyl Could Be Reinvented as a Solar Farm, Says Ukraine.” The Guardian. July 29, 2016.

Bell Labs…“solar battery”: Perlin, John. Let It Shine: The 6,000-Year Story of Solar Energy. Novato, California: New World Library, 2013.

“the beginning of a new era”: “Vast Power of Sun is Tapped by Battery Using Sand Ingredient.” New York Times. April 26, 1954.

At that time…$1,900 per watt: Mathiesen, Karl. “What is Holding Back the Growth of Solar Power?” The Guardian. January 31, 2016.

use [by] the oil industry: Perlin, Shine.

sixty-five cents per watt today: Weiser, Matt. “Here Comes the Sun: US Solar Power Market Hits All-Time High.” The Guardian. June 28, 2016.

cost competitive with…conventional power: IRENA, Solar PV.

bid[s]…at pennies per kilowatt-hour: Dipaola, Anthony. “Cheapest Solar on Record Offered as Abu Dhabi Expands Renewables.” Bloomberg. September 19, 2016.

panels rotate…generation can improve: Greentech Media. “Solar Balance-of-System: To Track or Not to Track, Part I.” November 28, 2012.

annual carbon dioxide savings [from PV]: IRENA, Solar PV.

20 percent of global energy needs by 2027: Farmer, J. Doyne, and François Lafond. “How Predictable is Technological Progress?” Research Policy, 45 (2015): 647–665.

solar PV…in Italy…Germany and Greece: REN 21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Charles Fritts…“photoelectric” modules: Perlin, John. Let It Shine: The 6,000-Year Story of Solar Energy. Novato, California: New World Library, 2013.

first [coal] plant…Thomas Edison: Schobert, Harold H. Energy and Society: An Introduction. Hoboken: CRC Press, 2014.

a billion people [without electricity]: IEA and World Bank. Sustainable Energy for All 2015—Progress Toward Sustainable Energy. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2015.

sun’s light [vs.] world’s total [energy] use: NOAA. “Energy on a Sphere.” http://sos.noaa.gov/Datasets/dataset.php?id=579.

photovoltaics…2 percent of…electricity: IRENA. Letting in the Light: How Solar PV Will Revolutionize the Electricity System. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency, 2016; IEA. Technology Roadmap: Solar Photovoltaic Energy. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2014.

distributed systems…percent of [total]: IHS Technology. Top Solar Power Industry Trends in 2015. London, 2015.

Germany…1.5 million systems: IRENA, Solar PV.

Bangladesh…3.6 million home solar systems: IEA and World Bank, Sustainable; IRENA, Solar PV.

16 percent of Australian homes: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

manufacturing boom in China…inexpensive panels: Goodrich, Alan C., Douglas M. Powell, Ted L. James, Michael Woodhouse, and Tonio Buonassisi. “Assessing the Drivers of Regional Trends in Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing.” Energy & Environmental Science 6, no. 10 (2013): 2811-2821; Fialka, John. “Why China Is Dominating the Solar Industry.” Scientific American. December 19, 2016.

soft costs of…a rooftop system: Ardani, Kristen, Galen Barbose, Robert Margolis, Ryan Wiser, David Feldman, and Sean Ong. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for US Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012.

cheap[er] than…the grid in some [places]: IRENA, Solar PV; REN21, Renewables 2016.

financial benefit of rooftop PV: Hallock, Lindsey, and Rob Sargent. Shining Rewards: The Value of Rooftop Solar Power for Consumers and Society. Washington, D.C.: Environment America, 2015: Muro, Mark, and Devashree Saha. Rooftop Solar: Net Metering Is a Net Benefit, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2016. 

investment in distributed solar: REN21, Renewables 2016.

Bangladesh…115,000 direct jobs: IRENA, Solar PV.

Yoshio Masuda…oscillating water column: Falcão, A.F.O. “Developments in Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converters and Air Turbines.” In Renewable Energies Offshore, edited by Guedes Soares. London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.

west coasts…wave activity: Lewis, A., S. Estefen, J. Huckerby, W. Musial, T. Pontes, and J. Torres-Martinez. “Ocean Energy.” In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

[challenges of] operating in salt water: Lewis et al, “Ocean Energy.”

[potential supply] of U.S. electricity: Levitan, Dave. “Why Wave Power Has Lagged Far Behind as Energy Source.” Yale Environment 360. April 28, 2014.

[potential supply] in Australia: Parkinson, Giles. “New Generation Wave Energy: Could It Provide One Third of Australia’s Electricity?” The Guardian. November 30, 2015.

[potential supply] In Scotland: Levitan, “Wave Power.”

“tale of two countries, Spain vs. the U.S.”: IEA. Technology Roadmap: Solar Thermal Electricity. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2014.

California in the 1980s: Perlin, John. Let It Shine: The 6,000-Year Story of Solar Energy. Novato, California: New World Library, 2013.

2014…4 gigawatts worldwide: IEA. Solar Thermal.

[generation] in Spain: IEA. Solar Thermal.

Morocco…Noor Ouarzazate Solar Complex: Nelsen, Arthur. “Morocco to Switch on First Phase of World's Largest Solar Plant.” The Guardian. February 4, 2016; Hicks, Celeste. “Morocco Lights the Way for Africa on Renewable Energy.” The Guardian. November 17, 2016.

direct normal irradiance…latitudes: IEA. Solar Thermal.

Optimal locales [for CSP]: IEA-ETSAP and IRENA. Concentrating Solar Power—Technology Brief. Paris and Abu Dhabi: International Energy Agency Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme and International Renewable Energy Agency, 2013.

Mediterranean basin…Kalahari Desert…potential: Pfenninger, Stefan, et al. “Potential for Concentrating Solar Power to Provide Baseload and Dispatchable Power.” Nature Climate Change, 4, no. 8 (2014): 689-692.

heat can be stored…more cheaply: Romm, Joe. “Why You Should Be Paying Attention to the ‘Other’ Form of Solar Power.” Think Progress. June 10, 2015.

Efficiency of…[t]echnologies…under development: Barbee, Jeffrey. “Could This Be the World’s Most Efficient Solar Electricity System?” The Guardian. May 13, 2015.

Solar Reserve…strategy to stop bird deaths: Kraemer, Susan. “One Weird Trick Prevents Bird Deaths at Solar Towers.” Clean Technica. April 16, 2015.

[History of using] mirrors to start fires: Perlin, Shine.

Perennial herbaceous grasses; Woody crops: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016; El Bassam, Nasir. Handbook of Bioenergy Crops: A Complete Reference to Species, Development and Applications. Routledge, 2010.

[U.S.] biomass electricity generation plants: “Biomass Energy Overview.” Partnership for Policy Integrity. April 2011.

land…food…biomass…interact dynamically: Kline, Keith L., Siwa Msangi, Virginia H. Dale, Jeremy Woods, Glaucia M. Souza, Patricia Osseweijer, Joy S. Clancy et al. “Reconciling Food Security and Bioenergy: Priorities for Action.” GCB Bioenergy 9 (2016): 557-576; Zilberman, David. “Indirect Land Use Change: Much Ado About (Almost) Nothing.” Global Change Biology, Bioenergy 9 (2016): 485–488.

2 percent of global electricity production: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Greenhouse gases…coal [vs.] nuclear: Schlömer S., T., Bruckner, L. Fulton, E. Hertwich, A. McKinnon, D. Perczyk, J. Roy, R. Schaeffer, R. Sims, P. Smith, and R. Wiser. “Technology-Specific Cost and Performance Parameters.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014; Warner, Ethan S., and Garvin A. Heath. “Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 16, no. S1 (2012): S73-S92.

percent of…electricity and…energy supply: IEA. Key World Energy Statistics. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2016.

operating nuclear reactors: IAEA-PRIS. “Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors.” https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/WorldStatistics/OperationalReactorsByCountry.aspx.

reactors…under construction: IAEA-PRIS. “Under Construction Reactors.” https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/WorldStatistics/UnderConstructionReactorsByCou....

France…[percent of] supply: IAEA-PRIS. “Country Statistics: France.” https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=FR.

Generation 3 reactors…in operation:  IEA and OECD-NEA. Technology Roadmap: Nuclear Energy. Paris and Issy-les-Moulineaux: International Energy Agency and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 2015.

[cost of] advanced nuclear: EIA. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2016. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016.; Lazard. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis 9.0. New York: Lazard. 2015.

coal-fired plants…[in] Asia: Goldenberg, Suzanne. “Plans for Coal-Fired Power in Asia Are ‘Disaster for Planet’ Warns World Bank.” The Guardian. May 5, 2016; Shearer, Christine, Nicole Ghio, Lauri Myllyvirta, Aiqun Yu, and Ted Nace. Boom and Bust 2016: Tracking the Global Coal Plant Pipeline. CoalSwarm, Greenpeace, and Sierra Club, 2016.

China…plants operative and…under construction: IAEA-PRIS. “Country Statistics: China.” https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=CN.

peak carbon dioxide in 2030: Tollefson, Jeff. “China’s Carbon Emissions Could Peak Sooner Than Forecast.” Nature 531, no. 7595 (2016): 425-426.

Amory Lovins [on nuclear]: Lovins, Amory B. Soft Energy Paths for the 21st Century. Boulder: Rocky Mountain Institute, 2011.

James Hansen [on nuclear]: “Top Climate Change Scientists’ Letter to Policy Influencers.” CNN. November 3, 2013.

115 reactors per year: Hansen, James, Kerry Emanuel, Ken Caldeira, and Tom Wigley. “Nuclear Power Paves the Only Viable Path Forward on Climate Change.” The Guardian. December 3, 2015.

Joseph Romm [on nuclear]: Romm, Joe. “Why James Hansen Is Wrong About Nuclear Power.” ThinkProgress. January 7, 2016.

IEA’s estimation…[growth] by 2050: IEA and OECD-NEA, Nuclear Energy.

Olkiluoto reactor in Finland: Stothard, Michael. “Tale of Woe in French Nuclear Sector.” Financial Times. October 13, 2015.

Normandy…pressurized-water reactor: Stothard, “Tale.”

Generation 4 reactors: Eaves, Elisabeth. “Can North America’s Advanced Nuclear Reactor Companies Help Save the Planet?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 73, no. 1 (2017): 27-37; Locatelli, Giorgio, Mauro Mancini, and Nicola Todeschini. “Generation IV Nuclear Reactors: Current Status and Future Prospects.” Energy Policy 61 (2013): 1503-1520.

power plants…34 percent efficient: EIA. Electric Power Annual 2015. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016

internal combustion engine…wasted heat: Orr, B., A. Akbarzadeh, M. Mochizuki, and R. Singh. “A Review of Car Waste Heat Recovery Systems Utilising Thermoelectric Generators and Heat Pipes.” Applied Thermal Engineering 101 (2016): 490-495; U.S. Department of Energy. “Where the Energy Goes: Gasoline Vehicles.” https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml.

[U.S.] cogeneration…energy-intensive industries: DOE and EPA. Combined Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2012.

Finland’s district heating…cogeneration: Fernandez Pales, Araceli. The IEA CHP and DHC Collaborative: CHP/DHC Country Scorecard: Finland. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2013.

Denmark…CHP…dates back to 1903: Kerr, Tom. The IEA CHP and DHC Collaborative: CHP/DHC Country Scorecard: Denmark. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2008.

district heating and…electricity…met by CHP: Kerr, Denmark.

MIT…challenged by the local utility: Zumbrun, Joshua. “The Most Efficient Power Plants.” Forbes. July 7, 2008.

100 kilowatts or less: American Wind Energy Association. AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study: Year Ending 2009, 2010.

1.1 billion people [without] electricity: IEA and World Bank. Sustainable Energy for All 2015—Progress Toward Sustainable Energy. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2015.

installed with a diesel generator: Rolland, S., and B. Auzane. “The Potential of Small and Medium Wind Energy in Developing Countries: A Guide for Energy Sector Decision-Makers.” Alliance for Rural Electrification—Position Paper. 2012.

micro wind turbines…in use: Pitteloud, Jean-Daniel, and Stefan Gsänger. 2016 Small Wind World Report. Bonn: World Wind Energy Association, 2016.

Eiffel Tower…vertical axis turbines: Murray, James. “Eiffel Tower Embraces Wind Power.” The Guardian. February 25, 2015.

Alessandro Volta…“air from marshy soil”: Wolfe, Ralph S. “A Historical Overview of Methanogenesis.” In Methanogenesis: Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry & Genetics, edited by James G. Ferry. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media, 1993.

methane in a pistol: Sethi, Anand Kumar. The European Edisons: Volta, Tesla, and Tigerstedt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

scientists [discovered] microbes were responsible: Wolfe, “Methanogenesis.”

methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

[history of] organic waste as an energy resource: Insam, Heribert, Ingrid Franke-Whittle, and Marta Goberna, eds. Microbes at Work: From Wastes to Resources. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2010.

[use in] Germany: Buckley, Pearse, ed. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 2015. Dublin, Ireland: IEA Bioenergy Secretariat, 2015.

rural China…digester gas: REN21: Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Alessandro Volta…“air from marshy soil”: Wolfe, Ralph S. “A Historical Overview of Methanogenesis.” In Methanogenesis: Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry & Genetics, edited by James G. Ferry. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media, 1993.

methane in a pistol: Sethi, Anand Kumar. The European Edisons: Volta, Tesla, and Tigerstedt. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

scientists [discovered] microbes were responsible: Wolfe, “Methanogenesis.”

methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

[history of] organic waste as an energy resource: Insam, Heribert, Ingrid Franke-Whittle, and Marta Goberna, eds. Microbes at Work: From Wastes to Resources. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2010.

[use in] Germany: Buckley, Pearse, ed. IEA Bioenergy Annual Report 2015. Dublin, Ireland: IEA Bioenergy Secretariat, 2015.

rural China…digester gas: REN21: Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Three Gorges…displaced 1.2 million people: Watts, Jonathan. “Three Gorges Dam May Force Relocation of a Further 300,000 People.” The Guardian. January 22, 2010.

native communities in rural Alaska: Mooney, Chris. “Alaska’s Quest to Power Remote Villages—and How It Could Spread Clean Energy Worldwide.” Washington Post. August 14, 2015.

Waterways fed by Himalayan snowmelt: Lee, Amy. “Microhydro Drives Change in Rural Nepal.” New York Times. June 20, 2012

city water mains; Portland, Oregon: Profita, Cassandra. “Portland Now Generating Hydropower In Its Water Pipes.” Oregon Public Broadcasting. January 20, 2015; Slavin, Terry. “From Oregon to Johannesburg, Micro-Hydro Offers Solution to Drought Hit Cities.” The Guardian. September 18, 2015.

[potential of] U.S. hydrokinetic resources: National Research Council. An Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2013.

methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

United States burns…waste: EPA. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management:

2014 Fact Sheet. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016.

1980s…New Jersey incinerator: Hawken, Paul. The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability. New York: Harper Business, 2010. 

Europe…waste-to-energy plants: CEWEP. Waste-to-Energy Plants in Europe 2014. Düsseldorf: Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants; Seltenrich, Nate. “Incineration Versus Recycling: In Europe, A Debate Over Trash.” Yale Environment 360. August 28, 2013.

Sweden…importing…garbage: Braw, Elisabeth. “Dirty Power: Sweden Wants Your Garbage for Energy.” Al Jazeera. March 27, 2015.

1,100 pounds of carbon dioxide [equivalent]: Braw, “Dirty Power.”

Europe…rate of recycling: Collins, Sarah. “EU Struggling with Household Recycling Targets.” Euranet Plus News Agency. January 27, 2017.

[electricity from] waste [vs.] coal: Themelis, Nickolas J. “Does Burning Garbage for Electricity Make Sense?” Wall Street Journal. November 15, 2015.

Scotgen gasification incinerator: “Pioneering Waste Plant Faces Legal Action After Pollution Leaks and an Explosion.” The Herald. January 19, 2013.

Rossano Ercolini…Zero Waste: Kinver, Mark. “Italy Waste Campaigner Wins 2013 Goldman Prize.” BBC News. April 15, 2013.

“hitched to everything else in the Universe”: Muir, John. My First Summer in the Sierra. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911.

85 percent of the world relies on [the grid]: World Bank. “Access to Electricity (% of Population).” Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) database. 2012. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS.

November in Germany…low wind and sun: Martinot, E. “Grid Integration of Renewable Energy: Flexibility, Innovation, and Experience.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 41 (2016): 223-251.

Spain…grid operator Red Eléctrica de España: Martinot, “Integration.”

[connected] power systems…in northwestern Europe: IEA. The Power of Transformation: Wind, Sun, and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2014.

renewable generation [in 2050]: IEA. World Energy Outlook. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2015.

already reaching 20 to 40 percent share: Martinot, “Integration.”

first delivered electricity…San Francisco: Coleman, Charles M. P.G. and E. of California: The Centennial Story of Pacific Gas and Electric Company, 1852-1952. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952.

Germany…global record [for] renewable power: Shankleman, Jess. “Germany Just Got Almost All of Its Power From Renewable Energy.” Bloomberg. May 16, 2016.

U.S. renewables record…Texas: Fares, Robert. “Texas Sets New All-Time Wind Energy Record.” Scientific American. January 14, 2016.

General Electric [project]: Casey, Tina. “GE Forges Ahead With World’s First Wind + Hydro + Storage Project.” CleanTechnica. November 14, 2016.

pumped storage…capacity: Kempener, Ruud and Gustavo de Vivero. Renewables and Electricity Storage: A Technology Roadmap for REmap 2030. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency, 2015.

Nevada… storage by rail: Massey, Nathanael. “Energy Storage Hits the Rails out West.” Scientific American. March 25, 2014.

Molten salt: Biello, David. “How to Use Solar Energy at Night.” Scientific American. February 18, 2009.

lithium-ion batteries…Los Angeles: Fialka, John. “World’s Largest Storage Battery Will Power Los Angeles.” Scientific American. July 7, 2016.

batteries…cost has dropped: Nykvist, Björn, and Måns Nilsson. “Rapidly Falling Costs of Battery Packs for Electric Vehicles.” Nature Climate Change 5, no. 4 (2015): 329-332; Knupfer, Stefan M., Russell Hensley, Patrick Hertzke, Patrick Schaufuss, Nicholas Laverty, Nicolaas Kramer. Electrifying Insights: How Automakers Can Drive Electrified Vehicle Sales and Profitability. McKinsey & Company, 2017.

2012…McKinsey & Company predict[ion]: Hensley, Russell, John Newman, and Matt Rogers. “Battery Technology Charges Ahead.” McKinsey Quarterly, July 2012.

General Motors and Tesla…in 2016: Voelcker, John. “Electric-Car Battery Costs: Tesla $190 per kwh for Pack, GM $145 for cells.” Green Car Reports. April 28, 2016.

[savings from] peak-demand utility billing: Dyson, Mark, James Mandel, et al. The Economics of Demand Flexibility: How “Flexiwatts” Create Quantifiable Value for Customers and the Grid. Boulder: Rocky Mountain Institute, 2015. 

Battery cost could halve: Nykvist and Nilsson, “Falling Costs.”

Clarence Kemp…The Climax: Perlin, John. Let It Shine: The 6,000 Year Story of Solar Energy. Novato, California: New World Library, 2013.

William Bailey’s Day and Night: Perlin, Shine.

China…70 percent of…capacity: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

Cyprus and Israel…90 percent of homes: IEA-ETSAP and IRENA. Solar Heating and Cooling for Residential Applications. Paris and Abu Dhabi: International Energy Agency and International Renewable Energy Agency, 2015.

large-scale installations [growing]: REN21, Renewables 2016.

“one of the most effective technologies”: Shukla, Ruchi, et al. “Recent Advances in the Solar Water Heating Systems: A Review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 19 (2013): 173-190.

Hot water…energy use: Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana, et al. “Heating and Cooling Energy Trends and Drivers in Buildings.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41 (2015): 85-98.

SWH can reduce…by 50 to 70 percent: IEA-ETSAP and IRENA, Solar.

United States…potential [impact of] SWH: Dutzik, Tony, Rob Kerth, and Rob Sargent. Smart, Clean, and Ready to Go: How Solar Hot Water Can Reduce Pollution and Dependence on Fossil Fuels. Boston: Environment America Research and Policy Center, 2011.

national ambitions for growth: Mauthner, Franz, Werner Weiss, and Monika Spörk-Dür. Solar Heat Worldwide: Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2014. Gleisdorf, Austria: IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program, 2016.

back to top


 

Food

“Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants”: Pollan, Michael. “Unhappy Meals.” New York Times Magazine. January 29, 2007.

livestock…emissions: FAO. Tackling Climate Change through Livestock: A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013; Goodland, R., and J. Anhang, “Livestock and Climate Change. What If the Key Actors in Climate Change Were Pigs, Chickens and Cows?” World Watch, November/December 2009.

cattle…greenhouse gases: Ranganathan, Janet, and Richard Waite. “Sustainable Diets: What You Need to Know in 12 Charts.” World Resources Institute. April 20, 2016.

protein eaten [vs.] dietary requirements: Ranganathan, Janet, et al. “Shifting Diets for a Sustainable Food Future.” Working Paper, Installment 11 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2016.

daily calories…from protein: WHO and FAO. “Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases.” Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation, WHO Technical Report Series, No. 916 (TRS 916). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.

study [of] transition to plant-based diets: Springmann, Marco, H. Charles, J. Godfray, Mike Rayner, and Peter Scarborough. “Analysis and Valuation of the Health and Climate Change Cobenefits of Dietary Change.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no. 15 (2016): 4146-4151.

report [about] “ambitious animal protein reduction”: Ranganathan, “Shifting.”

Beyond Meat and Impossible Foods: Gelles, David. “The ‘Impossible’ Veggie Burger: A Tech Industry Answer to the Big Mac.” New York Times. January 13, 2017; Strom, Stephanie. “Plant-Based, the Beyond Burger Aims to Stand Sturdy Among Meat.” New York Times. May 22, 2016.

markets for nonmeats [growing]: Kristof, Nicholas. “The (Fake) Meat Revolution.” New York Times, September 19, 2015; Riley, Tess. “From Vegan Beef to Fishless Filets: Meat Substitutes Are on the Rise.” The Guardian, October 15, 2014.

stories that highlight athletic heroes: Hartke, Kristen. “These Athletes Went Vegan—and Stayed Strong.” Washington Post. November 26, 2016.

$53 billion [in] livestock subsidies: Carrington, Damian. “Meat Tax Far Less Unpalatable Than Government Thinks, Research Finds.” The Guardian. November 23, 2015.

proposing…a tax on meat: Wellesley, Laura, Catherine Happer, and Antony Froggatt. Changing Climate, Changing Diets: Pathways to Lower Meat Consumption. London: Chatham House, 2015.

Thich Nhat Hanh [on] plant-based diet: Hanh, Thich Nhat. “Blue Cliff Letter: Sitting in the Autumn Breeze.” 2007. http://plumvillage.org/letters-from-thay/sitting-in-the-autumn-breeze/.

Measuring…deserted farmland: Gibbs, H. K., and J. M. Salmon. “Mapping the World’s Degraded Lands.” Applied Geography 57 (2015): 12-21.

950 million to 1.1 billion acres: Campbell, J. Elliott, David B. Lobell, Robert C. Genova, and Christopher B. Field. “The Global Potential of Bioenergy on Abandoned Agriculture Lands.” Environmental Science & Technology 42, no. 15 (2008): 5791-5794.

Rattan Lal…[loss of] carbon stock: Olson, Kenneth R., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Rattan Lal, and Larry Cihacek. “Impact of Soil Erosion on Soil Organic Carbon Stocks.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 71, no. 3 (2016): 61A-67A; Schwartz, Judith D. “Soil as Carbon Storehouse: New Weapon in Climate Fight.” Yale Environment 360. March 4, 2014.

depleted farmland soils could reabsorb…carbon: Gardiner, Beth. “A Boon for Soil, and for the Environment.” New York Times. May 17, 2016.

labor force [in] production of food: Prakash, A., and M. Stigler. FAO Statistical Yearbook. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2012.

a third of…food [is wasted]: FAO. Global Food Losses and Food Waste: Extent, Causes, and Prevention, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011.

Hunger [afflicts] 800 million people: FAO. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2015.

food…waste…emissions: FAO. Food Wastage Footprint: Full-Cost Accounting, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2014.

Ranked with countries…third-largest emitter: FAO, Food Wastage.

Sustainable Development Goals [for] food waste: United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12.3. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-consumption-product....

labeling on food packages…unregulated: FAO. Toolkit: Reducing the Food Wastage Footprint. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013.

Feeding the 5000: Royte, Elizabeth. “This Free Feast for 5,000 Was Made from Food Waste.” National Geographic. May 10, 2016.

United States…food-waste target: Aubrey, Allison. “It’s Time to Get Serious About Reducing Food Waste, Feds Say.” National Public Radio. September 16, 2015.

France passed a [food waste] law: Chrisafis, Angelique. “French Law Forbids Food Waste by Supermarkets.” The Guardian. February 4, 2016.

Italy followed suit: Kirchgaessner, Stephanie. “Italy Tackles Food Waste with Law Encouraging Firms to Donate Food.” The Guardian. August 3, 2016.

where food waste is greatest: FAO, Food Wastage.

[use of] open fires [and] rudimentary…stoves: WHO. Burning Opportunity: Clean Household Energy for Health, Sustainable Development, and Wellbeing of Women and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016; World Bank. State of the Global Clean and Improved Cooking Sector. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2015.

cooking fuels used: World Bank, State.

4.3 million premature deaths: WHO, Burning Opportunity.

household air pollution…death and disability: WHO. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Household Fuel Combustion. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014; World Bank, State.

Traditional cooking practices…emissions: Bailis, Robert, et al. “The Carbon Footprint of Traditional Woodfuels.” Nature Climate Change, 5 (2015): 266–272; Adria, Oliver, and Jan Bethge. “What Users Can Save with Energy-Efficient Stoves and Ovens.” Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy, 2013; World Bank, State.

Black carbon [vs.] carbon dioxide: WHO, Burning Opportunity.

household fuel combustion…black carbon emissions: WHO, Burning Opportunity; World Bank, State.

range of “improved” cookstove[s]: World Bank, State.

Gold Standard foundation: Gold Standard. Gold Standard Improved Cookstove Activities Guidebook. Geneva: Gold Standard Foundation, 2016.

Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves…ahead of schedule: GACC. Five Years of Impact: 2010-2015, Washington, D.C.: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, 2015; REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

“addressing climate change [and how] people cook”: GACC. “Clean Cooking Critical to Protecting the Environment and Addressing Climate Change.” Washington, D.C.: Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, 2016.

accelerate a next generation of…stoves: Simon, Gregory L., Rob Bailis, Jill Baumgartner, Jasmine Hyman, and Arthur Laurent. “Current Debates and Future Research Needs in the Clean Cookstove Sector.” Energy for Sustainable Development 20 (2014): 49-57.

emissions-reduction opportunity: Bailis, Robert, et al, “Carbon Footprint.”

rates of carbon sequestration: Nair, P.K., “Climate Change Mitigation: A Low-Hanging Fruit of Agroforestry.” In Agroforestry, The Future of Global Land Use, edited by P.K.R. Nair and Dennis P. Garrity, 31-67. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2012.; Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

sequestration…[vs.] natural forests: Brakas, Shushan Ghirmai, and Jens B. Aune. “Biomass and Carbon Accumulation in Land Use Systems of Claveria, the Philippines.” In Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems: Opportunities and Challenges, edited by B. M. Kumar and P.K.R. Nair, 163-175. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2011.

250 million acres of multistrata agroforestry: Nair, “Agroforestry.”

Cacao…20 million acres: Zomer, Robert, et al. Trees on Farm: Analysis of Global Extent and Geographic Patterns of Agroforestry. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre, 2009.

Shade-grown coffee…15 million acres: Jha, Shalene, et al. “Shade Coffee: Update on a Disappearing Refuge for Biodiversity.” BioScience 64, no. 5 (2014): 416-28.

Full-sun coffee farms…[vs.] shade farms: Clay, Jason. World Agriculture and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004; Huizen, Jennifer. “How Green Is Your Coffee?” Scientific American. October 1, 2014.

Home gardens…13,000 BC: Nair, P.K.R., and B.M. Kumar. “Introduction.” In Tropical Homegardens: A Time-Tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry, edited by B. Mohan Kumar and P.K. Ramachandran Nair, 1-10. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2006.

The Ramayana and The Mahabharata…Ashok Vatika: Puri, S., and P. K. R. Nair. “Agroforestry Research for Development in India: 25 years of Experiences of a National Program.” In New Vistas in Agroforestry, 437-452. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2004.

[use in] Indonesia…India: Nair and Kumar, “Introduction.”

“the epitome of sustainability”: Nair, P.K.R. “Whither Homegardens?” In Tropical Homegardens: A Time-Tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry, edited by B. Mohan Kumar and P.K. Ramachandran Nair, 355-370. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2006.

agroforestry can prevent deforestation: Dixon, R. K. “Agroforestry Systems: Sources of Sinks of Greenhouse Gases?” Agroforestry Systems 31, no. 2 (1995): 99-116; Montagnini, F., and P. K. R. Nair. “Carbon Sequestration: An Underexploited Environmental Benefit of Agroforestry Systems.” Agroforestry Systems 1, no. 61-62 (2004): 281-295.

calories of energy [per] calorie of food: Manner, Harley. “Sustainable Traditional Agricultural Systems of the Pacific Islands.” In Agroforestry Landscapes for Pacific Islands: Creating Abundant and Resilient Food Systems, edited by Craig Elevich. Holualoa, HI: Permanent Agricultural Resources, 2015.

“their breed has fed our folk”: Van Tri, Phan. “Grains of Rice.” In An Anthology of Vietnamese Poems., edited and translated by Huynh Sanh Thong. London: Yale University Press, 1996.

one-fifth of calories consumed: Elert, E. “Rice by the Numbers: A Good Grain.” Nature, 514, no. 7524 (2014): S50-S51.

rice cultivation…emissions: Adhya, T. K., et al. “Wetting and Drying: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Saving Water from Rice Production.” Working Paper, Installment 8 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2014; Forster, P., et al. “Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing.” In Climate Change 2007: Thee Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

[more] methane…as the planet gets hotter: Ziska, L. H., P. R. Epstein, and W. H. Schlesinger. “Rising CO2, Climate Change, and Public Health: Exploring the Links to Plant Biology.” Environmental Health Perspectives 117, no. 2 (2009): 155–158.

Methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

“discovered almost by accident”: de Laulanié, Henri. “Technical Presentation of the System of Rice Intensification, Based on Katayama’s Tillering Model.” Madagascar: Association Tefy Saina, 1992. http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/Laulanie.pdf.

“a less-is-more ethic”: Broad, William J. “Food Revolution That Starts with Rice.” New York Times. June 17, 2008.

[SRI] practiced by 4 million to 5 million farmers: Vidal, John. “India’s Rice Revolution.” The Guardian. February 16, 2013.

Sumant Kumar…world-record yield: Diwakar, M.C., Arvind Kumar, Anil Verma, and Norman Uphoff. “Report on the World Record SRI Yields in Kharif Season 2011 in Nalanda District, Bihar State, India.” Agriculture Today. June 2012.

[benefits of] transplanting single seedlings: Bhatt, K.N. “System of Rice Intensification for Increased Productivity and Ecological Security: A Report.” Rice Research: Open Access 3 (2015): 147.

mid-season drainage…reduces methane: Adhya et al, “Wetting and Drying”; Yu, K., G. Chen, and W.H. Patrick. “Reduction of Global Warming Potential Contribution from a Rice Field by Irrigation, Organic Matter, and Fertilizer Management.” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, no. 3 (2004): GB3018.

yields…seed use…water inputs: Latham, Jonathan. “How Millions of Farmers Are Advancing Agriculture for Themselves.” Independent Science News. December 3, 2012; Surridge, Christopher. “Rice Cultivation: Feast or Famine?” Nature 428 (2004): 360-361.

“not intrinsically labor-intensive”: Charles, Dan. “Unraveling the Mystery of a Rice Revolution.” National Public Radio. May 3, 2013.

Farm incomes can double: Namara, Regassa E., Parakrama Weligamage, and Randolph Barker. “Prospects for Adopting System of Rice Intensification in Sri Lanka.” Research Report 75. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute, 2004.

spread to some forty countries: Bhatt, “System.”

[used] on 1.1 billion acres worldwide: Nair, P. K. R. “Climate Change Mitigation: A Low-Hanging Fruit of Agroforestry.” In Agroforestry—The Future of Global Land Use, edited by P. K. Ramachandran Nair and Dennis Garrity, 31–67. Springer Netherlands, 2012.

dehesa system…Iberian Peninsula: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

Central America…work of champions: Palmer, Lisa. “In the Pastures of Colombia, Cows, Crops and Timber Coexist.” Yale Environment 360. March 13, 2014.

ruminants [use of] arable land: Herrero, Mario, Petr Havlík, Hugo Valin, An Notenbaert, Mariana C. Rufino, Philip K. Thornton, Michael Blümmel, Franz Weiss, Delia Grace, and Michael Obersteiner. “Biomass Use, Production, Feed Efficiencies, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Livestock Systems.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 52 (2013): 20888-20893; Gaughan, John, Lance Baumgard, and Cadaba Prasad. Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation. Springer, 2015.

sequester five to ten times as much carbon: Toensmeier, Solution.

silvopastoral forage [and] methane: Toensmeier, Solution; Palmer, “Colombia.”

Yield results [vs.] grass-only pasture: Toensmeier, Solution.

Colombia…investment of $400-800 per acre: Palmer, “Colombia.”

“food-like substances”: Pollan, Michael. In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. New York: Penguin, 2008.

Rattan Lal…carbon in the earth’s soils: Olson, Kenneth R., Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Rattan Lal, and Larry Cihacek. “Impact of Soil Erosion on Soil Organic Carbon Stocks.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 71, no. 3 (2016): 61A-67A; Schwartz, Judith D. “Soil as Carbon Storehouse: New Weapon in Climate Fight.” Yale Environment 360. March 4, 2014.

soil carbon levels: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

Soil erosion and water depletion cost: Lal, Rattan. “Degradation and Resilience of Soils.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 352, no. 1356 (1997): 997-1010; Uri, Noel D. “Agriculture and the Environment—The Problem of Soil Erosion.” Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 16, no. 4 (2000): 71-94.

free, reactive nitrogen: Robertson, G. Philip, and Peter M. Vitousek. “Nitrogen in Agriculture: Balancing the Cost of an Essential Resource.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34, no. 1 (October 15, 2009): 97–125.

oceanic dead zones: UNEP. “Excess Nitrogen in the Environment.” In UNEP Year Book 2014: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment, 6-11. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme. 

Nitrous oxide…[vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

the four Rs: Ehmke, Tanner. “The 4 Rs of Nutrient Management.” Crops and Soils Magazine. September-October 2012.

Right source: Venterea, Rodney T., Maharjan Bijesh, and Michael S. Dolan. “Fertilizer Source and Tillage Effects on Yield-Scaled Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Corn Cropping System.” Journal of Environment Quality 40, no. 5 (2011): 1521.

Right time and right place: Drury, C. F., W. D. Reynolds, X. M. Yang, N. B. McLaughlin, T. W. Welacky, W. Calder, and C. A. Grant. “Nitrogen Source, Application Time, and Tillage Effects on Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Corn Grain Yields.” Soil Science Society of America Journal 76, no. 4 (2012): 1268; Zebarth, B. J., P. Rochette, D. L. Burton, and M. Price. “Effect of Fertilizer Nitrogen Management on nitrogen oxide Emissions in Commercial Corn Fields.” Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88, no. 2 (2008): 189–95.

right rate: Robertson and Vitousek, “Nitrogen.”

how producers make decisions: Stuart, D., R. L. Schewe, and M. McDermott. “Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Application as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy: Understanding Farmer Decision-Making and Potential Barriers to Change in the US.” Land Use Policy 36 (January 2014): 210–18.

incentives and educational programs: Napier, T L, and T. Bridges. “Adoption of Conservation Production Systems in Two Ohio Watersheds: A Comparative Study.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57, no. 4 (2002): 229–35.

carbon-offset methodology: American Carbon Registry. “Reduced Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer.” http://americancarbonregistry.org/resources/reduced-use-of-nitrogen-fert... Millar, Neville, G. Philip Robertson, Peter R. Grace, Ron J. Gehl, and John P. Hoben. “Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for.” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global     Change 15, no. 2 (2010): 185–204.

Vermont…nutrient-management plans: Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food, and Markets. “Nutrient Management Planning and Land Treatment Planning.” http://agriculture.vermont.gov/water-quality/farmer-assistance/nmp-ltp.

United Kingdom…Nitrate Vulnerable Zones: Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs and Environment Agency. “Nutrient Management: Nitrate Vulnerable Zones.” https://www.gov.uk/guidance/nutrient-management-nitrate-vulnerable-zones.

close yield gaps and ensure adequate supply: Licker, Rachel, Matt Johnston, Jonathan A. Foley, Carol Barford, Christopher J. Kucharik, Chad Monfreda, and Navin Ramankutty. “Mind the Gap: How Do Climate and Agricultural Management Explain the ‘Yield Gap’ of Croplands around the World?” Global Ecology and Biogeography 19, no. 6 (2010): 769–82.

Nitrates Directive; Denmark and the Netherlands: UNEP, “Nitrogen.”

data on fertilizer consumption: FAOSTAT. “Fertilizers.” http://faostat.fao.org/beta/en/#data/RF/visualize.

[impact of] 20 percent improvement: UNEP, “Nitrogen.”

Tree intercropping has many variations: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

Malawi…Alley-cropped maize: Akinnifesi, F. K., W. Makumba, and F. R. Kwesiga. “Sustainable Maize Production Using Gliricidia/Maize Intercropping in Southern Malawi.” Experimental Agriculture 42, no. 04 (2006): 441-457.

concept known as kaizen in Japan: “Kaizen.” The Economist. April 14, 2009.

Brazil and Argentina in the 1970s: Farooq, M., and K. Siddique. “Conservation Agriculture: Concepts, Brief History, and Impacts on Agricultural Systems.” In Conservation Agriculture, 3–20. New York: Springer, 2015.

Annual crops…89 percent of…cropland: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016; FAO Statistical Services online.

Conservation agriculture…acres: Friedrich, Theodor, Rolf Derpsch, and Amir Kassam. “Overview of the Global Spread of Conservation Agriculture.” Field Actions Science Reports, Special Issue 6 (2012); Toensmeier, Solution; FAO Statistical Services online.

South America, North America, Australia, and New Zealand: Friedrich et al, “Overview.”

half a ton [of carbon] per acre: Toensmeier, Solution.

Albert Howard…champion of compost: Howard, Sir Albert. The Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture. New York: Devin-Adair Company, 1947.

nitrogen fertilizers…Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch: Erisman, Jan Willem, Mark A. Sutton, James Galloway, Zbigniew Klimont, and Wilfried Winiwarter. “How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World.” Nature Geoscience 1, no. 10 (2008): 636-639.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek; “wee beasties”: Montgomery, David R., and Anne Biklé. The Hidden Half of Nature: The Microbial Roots of Life and Health. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2016.

solid waste…organic or biodegradable: Hoornweg, Daniel, and Perinaz Bhada-Tata. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012.

methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

San Francisco…ordinance: Howard, Brian Clark. “How Cities Compost Mountains of Food Waste.” National Geographic. June 18, 2013.

Seattle…composting requirement: Ferdman, Roberto A. “Seattle is Now Publicly Shaming People for Putting Food in Their Trash Bins.” Washington Post. January 27, 2015.

Copenhagen…[no] organic waste to landfill: Levitan, Dave. “Recycling’s ‘Final Frontier’: The Composting of Food Waste.” Yale Environment 360. August 8, 2013.

“flesh is the soil”: da Vinci, Leonardo, and Jean Paul Richter. The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci. London: Phaidon, 1970.

terra preta soils…10 percent of the Amazon: Mann, C. C. “The Real Dirt on Rainforest Fertility.” Science 297, no. 5583 (August 2002): 920–923.

Wim Sombroek uncovered…black earth: Sombroek, Wim. Amazon Soils: A Reconnaissance of the Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region. Pudoc, Centre for Agricultural Publications and Documentation, 1966.; Woods, William I., Wenceslau G. Teixeira, Johannes Lehmann, Christoph Steiner, Antoinette WinklerPrins, and Lilian Rebellato, eds. Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek’s Vision. Berlin: Springer, 2009.

one gram of biochar…surface area: Chia, Chee H., Adriana Downie, and Paul Munroe. “Characteristics of Biochar: Physical and Structural Properties.” In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, 89-109. London: Earthscan, 2015.

crop yield increase of 15 percent: Jeffery, Simon, Diego Abalos, Kurt A. Spokas, and Frank G.A. Verheijen. “Biochar Effects on Crop Yield.” In Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation, 301-326. London: Earthscan, 2015; Jeffery, Simon, Frank G.A. Verheijen, Martijn van der Velde, and Ana Catarina Bastos. “A Quantitative Review of the Effects of Biochar Application to Soils on Crop Productivity Using Meta-Analysis.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 144, no. 1 (2011): 175-187.

[potential to] sequester…carbon dioxide: Kleiner, Kurt. “The Bright Prospect of Biochar.” Nature Reports Climate Change (2009): 72-74; Hertsgaard, Mark. “As Uses of Biochar Expand, Climate Benefits Still Uncertain.” Yale Environment 360. January 21, 2014.

[growth in] companies: IBI. State of the Biochar Industry 2015, International Biochar Initiative, 2015.

cultivated land…devoted to annuals: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution, White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016; FAO Statistical Services online

carbon…[and] yield…per acre: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution, White River Junction, VT, 2016.

less fuel, fertilizer, and pesticide: Pimentel, D., D. Cerasale, R. C. Stanley, R. Perlman, E. M. Newman, et al. “Annual vs. Perennial Grain Production.” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 161 (2012): 1-9.

6000 BC… Egyptians and Mesopotamians: Stewart, B. A., and Terry A. Howell. Encyclopedia of Water Science. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003.

agriculture and irrigation consume…freshwater: World Water Assessment Programme. The United Nations World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2012.

irrigation is essential for…food production: World Water Assessment Programme, Managing Water.

[water] application efficiency: Phocaides, Andreas. Handbook on Pressurized Irrigation Techniques. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2007; Sauer, T., P. Havlík, U. A. Schneider, E. Schmid, G. Kindermann, and M. Obersteiner. “Agriculture and Resource Availability in a Changing World: The role of Irrigation.” Water Resources Research, 46 (2010).

farmland under drip…irrigation: Starke, Linda, Erik Assadourian, and Tom Prugh. State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2013.

4 percent of…irrigated land: Starke et al, State.

Asia [has] significant opportunity: Aquastat. “Irrigation and Drainage.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/irrigationdrainage/index.stm#reg.

André Voisin…theory of…managed grazing: Voisin, André. “Grazing Management in Northern France.” Grass and Forage Science 12, no. 3 (1957): 150-154; Voisin, André. Grass Productivity: An Introduction to Rational Grazing. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1988.

meta-analysis of…impacts of grazing: McSherry, Megan E., and Mark E. Ritchie. “Effects of Grazing on Grassland Soil Carbon: A Global Review.” Global Change Biology 19, no. 5 (2013): 1347-57.

carbon [sequestered] per acre: Tennigkeit, Timm, and Andreas Wilkes. “An Assessment of the Potential for Carbon Finance in Rangelands.” Working Paper No. 68. Nairobi, World Agroforestry Centre, 2008; Conant, Richard T. Challenges and Opportunities for Carbon Sequestration in Grassland Systems: A Technical Report on Grassland Management and Climate Change Mitigation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010.

pastures…70 percent of…agricultural land: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

increasing [soil] carbon: Toensmeier, Solution; Flannery, Tim F. Now or Never: Why We Must Act Now to End Climate Change and Create a Sustainable Future. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2009.

Will Harris…“heritage and responsibility”: McKenna, Maryn. “From Factory Farm to Organic Icon: Inside White Oak Pastures.” Modern Farmer. September 2013.

holistic and humane system: Byck, Peter. One Hundred Thousand Beating Hearts. 2016. http://www.carbonnationmovie.com/about/clips/244-one-hundred-thousand-be...

“how can I make this land better?”: Reece, Chuck. “The Dirt Underneath.” The Bitter Southerner. May 5, 2015.

organic matter…ten times higher: Reece, “Dirt.”

Gabe Brown…“going to help live”: Montgomery, David. Growing a Revolution. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2017.

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Women and Girls

percent of the agricultural labor force: FAO. The State of Food and Agriculture: Women in Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011.

percent of food crops: Grow Africa. Smallholder Working Group Briefing Paper—Women Smallholders. Johannesburg: Grow Africa, 2016.

475 million smallholder families: FAO. The State of Food and Agriculture: Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2016.

less access to…resources: Agarwal, Bina. “Food Security, Productivity, and Gender Inequality.” In The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society, edited by Ronald J. Herring. Oxford University Press, 2015; FAO, State, 2011; Sellers, Sam. Gender and Climate Change: A Closer Look at Existing Evidence. New York: Global Gender and Climate Alliance, 2016.

[impact of] receiv[ing] equal access: Davies, Ken. “Unlocking the Power of Women Farmers.” The Guardian. June 12, 2014; FAO, State, 2011.

outputs…exceed men’s: Agarwal, “Food.”

percent of landholders [who] are women: Agarwal, “Food”; FAO, State, 2011.

Kindati Lakshmi [on owning land]: Tripathi, Ruchi, et al. What Works for Women: Proven Approaches for Empowering Women Smallholders and Achieving Food Security. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2012.

Bina Agarwal…[on] measures needed: Agarwal, Bina. “Food Security, Productivity, and Gender Inequality,” The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society. Edited by Ronald J. Herring. Oxford University Press, 2015.

cooperatives…share labor, resources, and risk: Tripathi, Ruchi, et al. What Works for Women: Proven Approaches for Empowering Women Smallholders and Achieving Food Security. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2012.

many smallholders at risk: Nelson, Rebecca, and Richard Coe. “Agroecological Intensification of Smallholder Farming.” In The Oxford Handbook of Food, Politics, and Society, edited by Ronald J. Herring. Oxford University Press, 2015.; Whitehead, Frederika. “Creating a Fertile Future for Smallholder Farmers in Africa.” The Guardian. February 13, 2015.

“building resilience to climate change”: FAO, State, 2016.

population…9.7 billion by 2050: DESA. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2015.

gender equality [and] cereal yields: FAO, State, 2011.

women…reinvest…into education, health, and nutrition: Matsaert, Frank. “Empowering Female Traders in East Africa Will Boost Growth—and Fight Poverty.” The Guardian. December 15, 2015.

Nepal…[impact of] women’s landownership: Allendorf, K. “Do Women’s Land Rights Promote Empowerment and Child Health in Nepal?” World Development 35, no. 11 (2007): 1975-1988.

access to contraception…unintended pregnancies: Singh, Susheela, Jacqueline E. Darroch, and Lori S. Ashford. Adding It Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health 2014. New York, NY: Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund, 2014.

United States…unintended [pregnancies]: Finer, L.B., and M.R. Zolna. “Declines in Unintended Pregnancy in the United States, 2008–2011.” New England Journal of Medicine, 374, no. 9 (2016): 843-852.

Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren…“IPAT”: Chertow, Marian R. “The IPAT Equation and Its Variants.” Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4 (2000): 13–29.

funding shortfall for…reproductive healthcare: Singh et al, Adding.

Iran…fertility rates halved: Weisman, Alan. Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? London: Little, Brown and Company, 2013.

Bangladesh…door-to-door approach: Weiss, Kenneth R. “How Bangladesh’s Female Health Workers Boosted Family Planning.” The Guardian. June 6, 2014.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [on family planning]: Smith, K.R., A. Woodward, D. Campbell-Lendrum, et al. “Human Health: Impacts, Adaptation, and Co-benefits.” In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

building resilience [to climate impacts]: Mutunga, Clive. Population, Reproductive Health, and International Adaptation Finance. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International, 2013; UNFPA. State of the World Population 2015: Shelter from the Storm. New York: United Nations Population Fund, 2015.

family planning…development assistance: Wexler A., J, Kates, and E. Lief. Donor Government Assistance for Family Planning in 2014. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015.

[impact of] 100 percent enrollment: Lutz, Wolfgang, and Samir KC. “Global Human Capital: Integrating Education and Population.” Science, 333, no. 6042 (2011): 587-592.

“no years [vs.] 12 years of schooling”: Winthrop, Rebecca, and Homi Kharas. “Want to Save the Planet? Invest in Girls’ Education.” Brookings Institution. March 3, 2016.

1.1 billion people [without] electricity: IEA and World Bank. Sustainable Energy for All 2015—Progress Toward Sustainable Energy. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2015.

per-capita emissions [by country]: The World Bank. “CO2 Emissions (Metric Tons Per Capita).” 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC (data from Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory).

Malala Yousafzai…“change the world”: Yousafzai, Malala. Speech to the United Nations Youth Assembly, New York, July 12, 2013.

enormous body of evidence: Sperling, Gene B., and Rebecca Winthrop. What Works in Girls’ Education: Evidence for the World’s Best Investment. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2016.

“highly cost-competitive…emissions abatement”: Wheeler, David, and Dan Hammer. “The Economics of Population Policy for Carbon Emissions Reduction in Developing Countries.” CGD Working Paper 229. Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development, 2010.

“reduction in vulnerability to natural disasters”: Striessnig, E., W. Lutz, and A. G. Patt. “Effects of Educational Attainment on Climate Risk Vulnerability.” Ecology and Society 18, no. 1 (2013); Blankespoor, Brian, Susmita Dasgupta, Benoit Laplante and David Wheeler. The Economics of Adaptation to Extreme Weather Events in Developing Countries. Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 199. Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development, 2010.

barriers [impeding education]: Sperling and Winthrop, What Works.

seven areas of interconnected interventions: Sperling and Winthrop, What Works.

62 million girls are denied [education]: Sperling and Winthrop, What Works.

South Asia…sub-Saharan Africa…secondary education: Sperling and Winthrop, What Works.

international aid for education: Winthrop and Kharas, “Invest”; Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Pricing the Right to Education: The Cost of Reaching New Targets by 2030. Policy Paper 18. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 2015.

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Buildings and Cities

ventilation principles from…termite mounds: King, Hunter, Samuel Ocko, and Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan. “Termite Mounds Harness Diurnal Temperature Oscillations for Ventilation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 37 (2015): 11589-11593.

Kaupuni Village…in Hawaii: NREL. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawaii. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012.

Sonnenschiff…in Freiburg, Germany: Michler, Andrew. “Sonnenschiff: Solar City Produces 4X the Energy It Consumes.” Inhabitat. July 27, 2011.

Cambridge…net zero by 2040: City of Cambridge. “Net Zero Action Plan.” http://www.cambridgema.gov/cdd/projects/climate/netzerotaskforce.

California…net zero [goals]: Waltner, Meg. “New California Building Efficiency Standards Set the Stage for Zero Net Energy Homes by 2020.” Natural Resources Defense Council (blog). June 10, 2015.

Walgreens drugstore in Chicago: Jaspen, Bruce. “Close to Its Home, Walgreen Tests Energy-Saving Ideas.” New York Times. June 4, 2013.

U.S. building sector energy consumption: Architecture 2030. “U.S. Building Sector Emissions Down—The Driving Force: You!” January 4, 2017; EIA. Annual Energy Outlook 2017. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2017.

compact developments…people drive…less: Ewing, R, K. Bartholomew, S. Winkelman, J. Walters, D. Chen, B. McCann, and D. Goldberg. Growing Cooler: The Evidence on Urban Development and Climate Change. Chicago: Urban Land Institute, 2007.

“general theory of walkability”: Speck, Jeff. Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time. New York: North Point Press, 2012.

manageable distance…ten- to fifteen-minute[s]: Hooper, P., M. Knuiman, F. Bull, E. Jones, and B. Giles-Corti. “Are We Developing Walkable Suburbs Through Urban Planning Policy? Identifying the Mix of Design Requirements to Optimise Walking Outcomes from the “Liveable Neighbourhoods” Planning Policy in Perth, Western Australia.” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12, no. 1 (2015).

cost of…infrastructure: Ewing et al, Growing Cooler.

Walkability…enhances…public transit: DeWeerdt, S. “Mobility: The Urban Downshift.” Nature, 531, no. 7594 (2016): S52-S53.

more people walk…safer: DeWeerdt, “Downshift.”

physical activity…health and well-being: DeWeerdt, “Downshift”; Frank, Lawrence D., Michael J. Greenwald, Steve Winkelman, James Chapman, and Sarah Kavage. “Carbonless Footprints: Promoting Health and Climate Stabilization Through Active Transportation.” Preventive Medicine 50 (2010): S99-S105.

Urbanites…population in 2050: DESA. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2015.

[problems with] municipal policies: Gravel, Ryan. Where We Want to Live: Reclaiming Infrastructure for a New Generation of Cities. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2016.

low-income countries…transportation budgets: DeWeerdt, “Downshift.”

Susan B. Anthony [on] bicycling: Macy, Sue. Wheels of Change: How Women Rode the Bicycle to Freedom (With a Few Flat Tires Along the Way). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2011.

Rob Penn [on] the bicycle: Penn, Robert. It’s All about the Bike: The Pursuit of Happiness on Two Wheels. New York: Bloomsbury, 2010.

elements that support…cycling: Hull, Angela, and Craig O’Holleran. “Bicycle Infrastructure: Can Good Design Encourage Cycling?” Urban, Planning and Transport Research, 2, no. 1 (2014): 369-406; Buehler, Ralph, and John Pucher. “Cycling to Work in 90 Large American Cities: New Evidence on the Role of Bike Paths and Lanes.” Transportation, 39, no. 2 (2012): 409–432; NACTO. Equitable Bike Share Means Building Better Places for People to Ride. New York: National Association of City Transportation Officials, 2016.

separated from car traffic: Baker, Linda. “How to Get More Bicyclists on the Road.” Scientific American, October 1, 2009.

[importance of] workplace showers: Buehler, Ralph. “Determinants of Bicycle Commuting in the Washington, DC Region: The role of Bicycle Parking, Cyclist Showers, and Free Car Parking at Work.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17, no. 7 (2012): 525–531.

Dutch official…cycling tantamount to suicide: Jordan, Pete. In the City of Bikes: The Story of the Amsterdam Cyclist. New York: Harper Perennial, 2013.

In Amsterdam, bikes outnumber cars: Tagliabue, John. “The Dutch Prize Their Pedal Power, but a Sea of Bikes Swamps Their Capital.” New York Times. June 20, 2013.

Copenhagen…responsive traffic light system: Jaffe, Eric. “Of Course Copenhagen Is Giving Bicycles Traffic-Light Priority.” CityLab—from The Atlantic. February 19, 2016.

local trips…[Denmark and] the Netherlands: Folbre, Nancy. “The Bicycle Dividend.” New York Times. July 4, 2011.

United States…trips…by bike: Folbre, “Dividend.”

Bike commuting [growth]: Pallardy, Richard. “Urban Bicycling: Year in Review 2015.” Encyclopædia Britannica, 2016.

trips…less than two miles: Folbre, “Dividend.”

health benefits of cleaner air and…activity: Garrard, J, C. Rissel, and A. Bauman..”Health Benefits of Cycling.” In City Cycling, edited by J. Pucher and R. Buehler, 31-54. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012.

reduced risk of fatalities: Jacobsen and Rutter, “Health Benefits”; NACTO. Equitable Bike Share Means Building Better Places for People to Ride, New York: National Association of City Transportation Officials, 2016.

Europe’s new bike highways: Schwägerl, Christian. “Moving Beyond the Autobahn: Germany’s New Bike Highways.” Yale Environment 360. February 18, 2016.

temperatures…ninety degrees higher: Garrison, N., C. Horowitz, and C.A. Lunghino. Looking Up: How Green Roofs and Cool Roofs Can Reduce Energy Use, Address Climate Change, and Protect Water Resources in Southern California. Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012.

truck plant in Dearborn, Michigan: Klinkenborg, Verlyn. “Up on the Roof.” National Geographic. May 2009.

Brooklyn…urban agriculture: Miller, Mark J. “A Farm Grows in Brooklyn—on the Roof.” National Geographic. April 29, 2014.

energy use for cooling: Garrison et al, Looking Up.

life span [vs.] conventional [roofs]: GSA. The Benefits and Challenges of Green Roofs on Public and Commercial Buildings. Washington, D.C.: General Services Administration, 2011.

beauty and…well-being; biophilia: Grinde, B., and G.G. Patil. “Biophilia: Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health and Well-Being?” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6 (2009): 2332–2343.

increased property appeal and value: Chiang, K., and A. Tan. Vertical Greenery for the Tropics. Singapore: Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology, 2009; GSA, Green Roofs.

Singapore…green roof installation: Singapore National Parks. “Skyrise Greenery Incentive Scheme 2.0.” https://www.nparks.gov.sg/skyrisegreenery/incentive-scheme.

Chicago fast-tracks permits: Taylor, D.A. “Growing Green Roofs, City by City.” Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, no. 6 (2007): A306–A311.

San Francisco…green roof mandate: Snow, Jackie. “Green Roofs Take Root Around the World.” National Geographic. October 27, 2016.

conventional dark roof [vs.] cool roof: Hesson, Ted. “Cool Roofs.” The Atlantic. December 4, 2015.

relieve the urban heat island effect: Meichun Cao, Pablo Rosado, Zhaohui Lin, Ronnen Levinson, and Dev Millstein. “Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions.” Environmental Science & Technology, 49, no. 24 (2015).

California…building efficiency standards: Akbari, Hashem, and Ronnen Levinson. “Evolution of Cool-Roof Standards in the US.” Advances in Building Energy Research 2, no. 1 (2008).

diodes emit light…observed in 1907: Zheludev, Nikolay. “The Life and Times of the LED—a 100-year History.” Nature Photonics 1, no. 4: 189-192; Schubert, E. Fred. 2014. Light-emitting Diodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

1960s…commercial applications: Zheludev, Nikolay, “Life and Times”; Schubert, E. Fred. Light-emitting Diodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014: Overbye, Dennis. “American and 2 Japanese Physicists Share Nobel for Work on LED Lights.” New York Times. October 7, 2014.

LED [vs.] incandescent [vs.] compact fluorescent: Pimputkar, Siddha, James S. Speck, Steven P. DenBaars, and Shuji Nakamura. “Prospects for LED Lighting.” Nature Photonics 3, no. 4 (2009): 180-182. 2009.

80 percent of…energy use [for] creating light: Pimputkar et al, “Prospects.”

kerosene lamps…emissions: Lam, Nicholas L., Yanju Chen, Cheryl Weyant, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte, Michael A. Johnson, Kirk R. Smith et al. “Household Light Makes Global Heat: High Black Carbon Emissions from Kerosene Wick Lamps.” Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 24 (2012): 13531-13538; Meaker, Morgan. “The Developing World Faces a Silent Killer. Could a $1 Solar Light Help?” The Guardian. March 1, 2016.

“A sixth of humanity…[vs.] the electrified world”: Mills, Evan. “Can Technology Free Developing Countries from Light Poverty?” The Guardian. July 30, 2015.

India…1 million solar lighting systems: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

lighting…global electricity use: Neslen, Arthur. “Plan for 10 Billion Ultra-Efficient LEDs Lights Up Paris Climate Summit.” The Guardian, December 7, 2015.

diodes emit light…observed in 1907: Zheludev, Nikolay. “The Life and Times of the LED—a 100-year History.” Nature Photonics 1, no. 4: 189-192; Schubert, E. Fred. 2014. Light-emitting Diodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

1960s…commercial applications: Zheludev, Nikolay, “Life and Times”; Schubert, E. Fred. Light-emitting Diodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Nobel Prize in Physics in 2014: Overbye, Dennis. “American and 2 Japanese Physicists Share Nobel for Work on LED Lights.” New York Times. October 7, 2014.

LED [vs.] incandescent [vs.] compact fluorescent: Pimputkar, Siddha, James S. Speck, Steven P. DenBaars, and Shuji Nakamura. “Prospects for LED Lighting.” Nature Photonics 3, no. 4 (2009): 180-182. 2009.

80 percent of…energy use [for] creating light: Pimputkar et al, “Prospects.”

kerosene lamps…emissions: Lam, Nicholas L., Yanju Chen, Cheryl Weyant, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte, Michael A. Johnson, Kirk R. Smith et al. “Household Light Makes Global Heat: High Black Carbon Emissions from Kerosene Wick Lamps.” Environmental Science & Technology 46, no. 24 (2012): 13531-13538; Meaker, Morgan. “The Developing World Faces a Silent Killer. Could a $1 Solar Light Help?” The Guardian. March 1, 2016.

“A sixth of humanity…[vs.] the electrified world”: Mills, Evan. “Can Technology Free Developing Countries from Light Poverty?” The Guardian. July 30, 2015.

India…1 million solar lighting systems: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report, Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

lighting…global electricity use: Neslen, Arthur. “Plan for 10 Billion Ultra-Efficient LEDs Lights Up Paris Climate Summit.” The Guardian, December 7, 2015.

Benjamin Franklin…science of refrigeration: Isaacson, Walter. Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

“possibility of freezing a man to death”: Franklin, Benjamin. Letter to John Lining. London, June 17, 1758.

air-conditioning…“epidemic”: “No Sweat.” Economist. January 5, 2013.

understand how this happened: Cooper, Gail. Air Conditioning America: Engineers and the Controlled Environment, 1900-1960. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

road civilization should never have taken: Cox, Stan. Losing Our Cool: Uncomfortable Truths About Our Air-Conditioned World (and Finding New Ways to Get Through the Summer). New York: The New Press, 2013.

[predicted] increase in AC demand: Henley, John. “World Set to Use More Energy for Cooling Than Heating.” The Guardian. October 26, 2015.

[growth of] air-conditioned homes in Chinese cities: “No Sweat,” Economist.

China will [become] leading consumer of AC: Cox, Stan. “Cooling a Warming Planet: A Global Air Conditioning Surge.” Yale Environment 360. July 10, 2012.

building sector…energy…for heating and cooling: Lucon, O., D. Ürge-Vorsatz, A. Zain Ahmed, H. Akbari, P. Bertoldi, L. F. Cabeza, N. Eyre et al. “Buildings.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

unit of electricity consumed…five units of heat energy…transferred: IEA. Transition to Sustainable Buildings Strategies and Opportunities to 2050. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2013.

[potential to] reduce…emissions: IEA HPC. Retrofit Heat Pumps for Buildings. Boras, Sweden: IEA Heat Pump Centre, 2010.

Roman glass: Deviren, A. Senem, and Phillip James Tabb. The Greening of Architecture: A Critical History and Survey of Contemporary Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2013.

windows…less efficient insulated walls: Gunn, Dwyer. “This Sustainable New Tech Will Make You See Windows in a Whole New Light.” The Guardian. November 10, 2016.

most efficient windows…U-value: Energy Star. “ENERGY STAR Most Efficient.” https://www.energystar.gov/products/most_efficient.

Electrochromic glass…developed in the 1970s and ’80s: “Researchers Develop ‘Smart’ Window to Cut Energy Consumption.” New York Times. September 29, 1992.

nanoscale metal oxides: Hickey, Shane. “Smart Glass Offers Window of Opportunity for View.” The Guardian. November 23, 2014.

disaggregate light and heat: Korgel, Brian A. “Materials Science: Composite for Smarter Windows.” Nature 500, no. 7462 (2013): 278-279.

Japan…[drop in] cooling loads: Yoshimura, Kazuki, Kazuki Tajima, and Yasusei Yamada. “Development of Switchable Mirror Glass.” Synthesiology 5, no. 4 (2013): 262-269.

electrochromic line…[vs.] traditional windows: Gunn, “Windows.”

European Union’s energy use [for heating and cooling]: European Commission. An EU Strategy on Heating and Cooling. Brussels, February 16, 2016.

Residential thermostats…U.S. energy consumption: Peffer, T., M. Pritoni, A. Meier, C. Aragon, and D. Perry. “How People Use Thermostats in Homes: A Review.” Building and Environment 46 (2011): 2529-2541.

manual operation or preset programming…unreliable: Peffer et al, “Thermostats.”

The Nest came to market in 2011: Lohr, Steve. “Ex-Apple Leaders Push the Humble Thermostat into the Digital Age.” New York Times. October 25, 2011.

white paper [on] energy savings: Nest Labs. Energy Savings from the Nest Learning Thermostat: Energy Bill Analysis Results. Palo Alto: Nest Labs, 2015.

payback in less than two years: Nest Labs, Energy Savings.

New York Steam Company…Birdsill Holly: Gardiner, Beth. “Britain Looks to an Old Heating Technology in Fight to Cut Emissions.” New York Times. September 2, 2009.

University of Toronto: Freeman, Bill. The New Urban Agenda: The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. Toronto: Dundurn, 2015.

Soviets; Nordic cities: Johnson, Charlotte. “District Heating: A Hot Idea Whose Time Has Come.” The Guardian, November 18, 2014.

Copenhagen…world’s largest district system: Gerdes, Justin. “Copenhagen’s Ambitious Push to Be Carbon Neutral by 2025.” Yale Environment 360. April 11, 2013; UNEP. District Energy in Cities: Unlocking the Potential of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2015.

[impact of] Tokyo’s district system: UNEP, District Energy.

district cooling…in Paris: IEA. Linking Heat and Electricity Systems: Co-Generation and District Heating and Cooling Solutions for a Clean Energy Future. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2014; UNEP, District Energy.

Methane [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Landfills…methane emissions: Bogner, J., et al. “Waste Management.” In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Landfill methane…energy source: EPA. Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases—A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emission and Sinks. 3rd edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006.

cities…[volumes of] solid waste: Hoornweg, Daniel, and Perinaz Bhada-Tata. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012.

sustainable waste-diversion approaches: Laurent, A., et al. “Review of LCA Studies of Solid Waste Management Systems—Part I: Lessons Learned and Perspectives.” Waste Management 34, no. 3 (2014): 573–588.

open landfills…methane emissions: Powell, Jon T., Timothy G. Townsend, and Julie B. Zimmerman. “Estimates of Solid Waste Disposal Rates and Reduction Targets for Landfill Gas Emissions.” Nature Climate Change 6 (2016): 162–165.

air infiltration…energy…wasted: St. John, Kathryn. “Building Green with Energy-Efficient Materials: Insulation.” U.S. Green Building Council. September 7, 2016.

range of insulating materials: Schiavoni, S., F. Bianchi, and F. Asdrubali. “Insulation Materials for the Building Sector: A Review and Comparative Analysis.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 62 (2016): 988-1011.

waste feathers from poultry operations: Hickey, Shane. “The Innovators: Greener Home Insulation to Feather Your Nest.” The Guardian. April 10, 2016.

Passivhaus…saving energy: Trubiano, Franca. “Energy-Free Architectural Design: The Case of Passivhaus and Double-Skin Facades.” In Design and Construction of High Performance Homes, 37-54. New York: Routledge, 2013; James, Mary, and James Bill. Passive House in Different Climates: The Path to Net Zero. New York: Routledge, 2016.

“world’s tallest building”: Tauranac, John. The Empire State Building: The Making of a Landmark. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2014.

buildings…energy use and…emissions: Lucon, O., D. Ürge-Vorsatz, A. Zain Ahmed, H. Akbari, P. Bertoldi, L. F. Cabeza, N. Eyre et al. “Buildings.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

[U.S.] buildings’ energy consumption: U.S. Department of Energy. “Buildings Share of U.S. Primary Energy Consumption (Percent).” Buildings Energy Data Book. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView.aspx?table=1.1.3.

80 percent of…energy…wasted: Next 10. Untapped Potential of Commercial Buildings—Energy Use and Emissions. San Francisco: Next 10, 2010.

critical to modify existing buildings: Al-Kodmany, Kheir. “Green Retrofitting Skyscrapers: A Review.” Buildings 4, no. 4 (2014): 683-710; Preservation Green Lab. The Greenest building: Quantifying the Environmental Value of Building Reuse. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2011.

buildings in the United States; commercial: Nemtzow, David. “140 Million Places to Save Energy.” Energy.gov. September 1, 2016; U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. https://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.

[longevity] of the existing building stock: Ma, Zhenjun, Paul Cooper, Daniel Daly, and Laia Ledo. “Existing Building Retrofits: Methodology and State-of-the-Art.” Energy and Buildings 55 (2012): 889-902; Campbell, Iain, and Koben Calhoun. “Old Buildings Are U.S. Cities’ Biggest Sustainability Challenge.” Harvard Business Review. January 21, 2016.

Empire State Building…energy [use]: Malkin, Anthony E. “Four Reasons Why the Empire State Building Retrofit Model Works.” The Clinton Foundation. August 12, 2014.

retrofit…[reduce] usage by 40 percent: Harrington, Eric and Cara Carmichael. Project Case Study: Empire State Building. Rocky Mountain Institute, 2009.

energy costs and…emissions [avoided]: Navaro, Mireya. “Empire State Building Plans Environmental Retrofit.” New York Times. April 6, 2009.

windows…rebuilt on-site: Lehner, Peter. “Empire State Building Cuts Energy Waste, Becomes Unexpected Model of Efficiency.” Natural Resources Defense Council. October 26, 2012.

buildings over 500,000 square feet: EIA, Commercial Buildings.

commercial buildings…[rate] upgraded: Olgyay, Victor, and Cherlyn Seruto. “Whole-Building Retrofits: A Gateway to Climate Stabilization.” ASHRAE Transactions 116, no. 2 (2010).

[returns on] retrofitting [U.S.] buildings: Fulton, Mark, ed. United States Building Energy Efficiency Retrofits: Market Sizing and Financing Models. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation and Deutsche Bank Climate Change Advisors, 2012.

1.6 trillion square feet of building stock: Navigant Research. Global Building Stock Database. Boulder: Navigant Research, 2015.

Rocky Mountain Institute…strategy in Chicago: Campbell and Calhoun, “Old Buildings.”

Pumping [water]…enormous amounts of energy: Pabi, S., A. Amarnath, R. Goldstein, and L, Reekie. Electricity Use and Management in the Municipal Water Supply and Wastewater Industries. Palo Alto: Electric Power Research Institute, 2013.

8.6 trillion gallons…lost [to] leaks: Kingdom, Bill, Roland Liemberger, and Philippe Marin. The Challenge of Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in Developing Countries. How the Private Sector Can Help: A Look at Performance-Based Service Contracting. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2006.

“steady, moderately low level of pressure”: Bornstein, David. “The Art of Water Recovery.” New York Times. July 10, 2014.

Britain…National Leakage Initiative: Bornstein, “Recovery.” 

United States…one-sixth of distributed water escapes: Thornton, Julian, George Kunkel, and Reinhard Sturm. Water Loss Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

low-income regions…50 percent of total volume: Farley, M., G. Wyeth, Z.B. Ghazali, A. Istandar, and S. Singh. The Manager’s Non-Revenue Water Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Water Loss. Bangkok, Thailand: Ranhill Utilities Berhad and the United States Agency for International Development, 2008.

[if] halved…supply some 90 million people: Kingdom, Bill, Gerard Soppe, and Jemima Sy. “What Is Non-Revenue Water? How Can We Reduce It for Better Service?” The Water Blog. The World Bank. August 31, 2016.

Manila…[successes of] water utility: Bornstein, “Recovery”; International Water Association. “The 2013 IWA Project Innovation Awards—Development” Press release. September 2013.

World Bank–International Water Association partnership: World Bank. “The World Bank and the International Water Association to Establish a Partnership to Reduce Water Losses.” Press release. Stockholm, September 1, 2016.

automated systems…[lower] energy consumption: IEA. Transition to Sustainable Buildings: Strategies and Opportunities to 2050. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2013; Siemens. Building Automation—Impact on Energy Efficiency. Zug, Switzerland: Siemens, 2009.

indoor air quality…increases in productivity: WGBC. Health, Wellbeing, and Productivity in Offices: The Next Chapter for Green Building. London: World Green Building Council, 2014.

buildings…energy use and…emissions: Lucon, O., D. Ürge-Vorsatz, A. Zain Ahmed, H. Akbari, P. Bertoldi, L. F. Cabeza, N. Eyre et al. “Buildings.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

“neural networks”: Lux Research. Sensors and Controls for BEMS: Providing the Neural Network to Net-Zero Energy. Boston: Lux Research, 2012.

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Land Use

300 billion tons of carbon: FAO. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2016.

logged…biological degradation: Zimmerman, Barbara L., and Cyril F. Kormos. “Prospects for Sustainable Logging in Tropical Forests.” BioScience 62, no. 5 (2012): 479-487.

[deforestation in] the Fertile Crescent: Diamond, Jared. “The Erosion of Civilization.” Los Angeles Times. June 15, 2003.

world’s tree population: Crowther, T. W., H. B. Glick, K. R. Covey, C. Bettigole, D. S. Maynard, S. M. Thomas, J. R. Smith et al. “Mapping Tree Density at a Global Scale.” Nature 525, no. 7568 (2015): 201-205.

15.4 million square miles: World Bank. 2015. “Forest Area (sq. km).” http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.FRST.K2.

forest [lost] every minute: World Wildlife Fund. “Deforestation.” http://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation

emissions from deforestation: Smith P., M. Bustamante, H. Ahammad, H. Clark, H. Dong, E.A. Elsiddig, H. Haberl, R. Harper, J. House, M. Jafari, O. Masera, C. Mbow, N.H. Ravindranath, C.W. Rice, C. Robledo Abad, A. Romanovskaya, F. Sperling, and F. Tubiello. “Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU).” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate ChangeContribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015; Van der Werf, Guido R., Douglas C. Morton, Ruth S. DeFries, Jos GJ Olivier, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, Robert B. Jackson, G. James Collatz, and James T. Randerson. “CO2 Emissions from Forest Loss.” Nature Geoscience 2, no. 11 (2009): 737-738.

emissions dropped by 25 percent: FAO. FAO Assessment of Forests and Carbon Stocks, 1990–2015. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2015; Federici, Sandro, Francesco N. Tubiello, Mirella Salvatore, Heather Jacobs, and Josef Schmidhuber. “New Estimates of CO2 Forest Emissions and Removals: 1990–2015.” Forest Ecology and Management 352 (2015): 89-98.

Conversion of forest…soil carbon: Guo, Lanbin B., and R. M. Gifford. “Soil Carbon Stocks and Land Use Change: A Meta Analysis.” Global Change Biology 8, no. 4 (2002): 345-360.

offset…carbon emissions: Pan, Yude, Richard A. Birdsey, Jingyun Fang, Richard Houghton, Pekka E. Kauppi, Werner A. Kurz, Oliver L. Phillips et al. “A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests.” Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 988-993.

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. 2016 Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2016.

terrestrial plants and animals; pharmaceuticals: Seymour, Frances, and Jonah Busch. Why Forests? Why Now? Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development, 2014.

Brazil…[deforestation] cut by 80 percent: Seymour and Busch, Forests.

state of Pará: Tollefson, Jeff. “Battle for the Amazon.” Nature 520, no. 7545 (2015): 20-24.

agreement between…meat-packers and Greenpeace: Srinivas, Siri. “Brazil Beef Industry Pledges to Cut Amazon Deforestation.” The Guardian. May 14, 2015; Wilkinson, Allie. “In Brazil, Cattle Industry Begins to Help Fight Deforestation.” Science. May 15, 2015.

Achim Steiner [on Brazil]: Seymour and Busch, Forests.

2016…[deforestation] ticked back up: Biderman, Rachel and Ruth Nogueron. “Brazilian Government Announces 29 Percent Rise in Deforestation in 2016.” World Resources Institute. December 9, 2016.

what is would “cost”: Boucher, Doug, Diana Movius, Carolyn Davidson. Estimating the Cost and Potential of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation. Washington, D.C.: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2008.

coastal wetlands [vs.] tropical forests: Boyd, Robynne. “Blue Carbon: An Oceanic Opportunity to Fight Climate Change.” Scientific American. March 10, 2011.

mangrove forests…two years of global emissions: “Editorial: Blue Future.” Nature 529 (2016): 255–256.

one-third of…mangroves…lost: Boyd, “Blue Carbon.”

“sequestration…in ‘blue-carbon’ wetlands”: “Blue Future,” Nature; Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: Ramsar Convention Bureau. The Ramsar Convention Manual and Guide to the Convention on Wetlands, Ramsar, Iran, 1971. Gland: Ramsar Convention Bureau, 2013.

“living shorelines”: Stutz, Bruce. “Why Restoring Wetlands Is More Critical Than Ever,” Yale Environment 360. July 28, 2014; Bilkovic, Donna Marie. Living Shorelines: The Science and Management of Nature-based Coastal Protection. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2017.

European companies…in Senegal: Bird, Winifred. “African Wetlands Project: A Win for the Climate and the People?” Yale Environment 360. November 3, 2016.

[coverage] of the world’s landmasses: Seymour, Frances, and Jonah Busch. Why Forests? Why Now? Washington: Center for Global Development, 2014.

“largest forest area…highest carbon uptake”: Pan, Yude, Richard A. Birdsey, Jingyun Fang, Richard Houghton, Pekka E. Kauppi, Werner A. Kurz, Oliver L. Phillips et al. “A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests.” Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 988-993.

[sequestration] of carbon dioxide per year: Pan et al, “Carbon Sink.”

equivalent to 11 percent of…emissions: Seymour and Busch, Forests.

Tropical forest loss…emissions: Busch, Jonah, and Jens Engelmann. “Tropical Forests Offer up to 24–30 Percent of Potential Climate Mitigation.” Center for Global Development. November 4, 2014.

percent of…forestland…cleared…degraded: Minnemeyer, Susan, Lars Laestadius, Nigel Sizer, Carole Saint-Laurent, and Peter Potapov. A World of Opportunity. Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration, 2011.

[sizing] “opportunities for restoration”: Minnemeyer et al, Opportunity.

“number of trunks…quality of the forest”: McKibben, Bill. “An Explosion of Green.” The Atlantic. April 1995.

[ability of] tropical forests [to] recover: Poorter, Lourens, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili et al. “Biomass Resilience of Neotropical Secondary Forests.” Nature 530, no. 7589 (2016): 211-214.

forest landscape restoration: Laestadius, L., K. Buckingham, S. Maginnis, and C. Saint-Laurent. “Before Bonn and Beyond: The History and Future of Forest Landscape Restoration.” Unasylva 66, no. 245 (2015): 11-18.

“landscape as an integrated whole”: Lapstun, S. “Editorial.” Unasylva 66, no. 245 (2015): 2.

guiding principles for restoration: FAO. Forest Restoration and Rehabilitation. Module from the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

[potential impact of] Bonn Challenge…New York Declaration on Forests: Verdone, M., N. Olsen, P. Wylie, C. Saint Laurent, and M. Maginnis. Making the Case for Forest Landscape Restoration. White paper, initial working draft for future discussion. Post-Bonn Challenge 2.0 Ministerial Event, March 20–21, 2015. International Union for the Conservation of Nature; Laestadius et al, “Bonn.”

active forest restoration…[cost] per acre: Delgado, Christopher, Michael Wolosin, and Nigel Purvis. Restoring and Protecting Agricultural and Forest Landscapes and Increasing Agricultural Productivity. Working paper. London and Washington, D.C.: New Climate Economy, 2015.

estimates [of]…“net benefits…and carbon dioxide”: IUCN. “Bonn Challenge Approaches Target to Restore 150 million Hectares of Degraded Land.” International Union for the Conservation of Nature. September 4, 2016.

source of income…food security…energy…health…and safety: Seymour and Busch, Forests.

AFR100; Brazil: Pearce, Fred. “Paris COP 21—How ‘Landscape Carbon’ Can Be Part of a Solution on Climate.” Yale Environment 360. December 7, 2015.

Philippine creation story: Rodriguez, Evelyn I.  “Malakas at Maganda.” In Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, Volume One, edited by Jonathan H.X. Lee and Kathleen M. Nadeau, 386-387. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2010.

carbon [sequestered] over a lifetime: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

top-ten…fastest-growing plants: Conservation Institute. “10 Fastest Growing Trees and Plants in the World.” April 25, 2014. http://www.conservationinstitute.org/10-fastest-growing-trees-plants-in-....

full height in one growing season: INBAR. Bamboo for Africa: A Strategic Resource to Drive the Continent’s Green Economy. Beijing: International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, 2015.

cultivated on…57 million acres: Toensmeier, Solution.

strength of concrete and…steel: INBAR, Bamboo.

“friend of the people”: Cumo, Christopher. “Bamboo.” In Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia [3 Volumes]: From Acacia to Zinnia, 67-70. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2013.

phytoliths…carbon…remain[s] sequestered: Parr, Jeffrey, Leigh Sullivan, Bihua Chen, Gongfu Ye, and Weipeng Zheng. “Carbon Bio‐Sequestration Within the Phytoliths of Economic Bamboo Species.” Global Change Biology 16, no. 10 (2010): 2661-2667.

pulp [vs.] conventional pine plantation: T. K., Dhamodaran, R. Gnanaharan, and K. Sankara Pillai. “Bamboo for Pulp and Paper.” Kerala Forest Research Institute, 2003.

bioenergy [in transport and]…power: REN21. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 2016.

bioenergy…projected to grow: IEA. Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2015. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2015.

United States…corn…ethanol: REN21, Renewables 2016.

Perennial bioenergy crops can be different: El Bassam, N. Handbook of Bioenergy Crops: A Complete Reference to Species, Development, and Applications. London and Washington, D.C.: Earthscan, 2010.

emissions…compared to corn ethanol: Charles, Chris, and Ivetta Gerasimchuk, Richard Bridle, Tom Moerenhout, Elisa Asmelash, Tara Laan. Biofuels—At What Cost? A Review of Costs and Benefits of EU Biofuel Policies. Winnipeg: The International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2013; Conca, James. “It’s Final—Corn Ethanol Is of No Use.” Forbes. April 20, 2014; Smith, Pete, Mercedes Bustamante, Helal Ahammad, Harry Clark, Hongmin Dong, Elnour A. Elsiddig, Helmut Haberl et al. “Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU).” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

grow on degraded land: Mehmood, M.A., et al. “Biomass Production for Bioenergy Using Marginal Lands.” Sustainable Production and Consumption 9 (2017): 3–21.

[benefits of] perennials: Whirling, Ben P., et al. “Perennial Grasslands Enhance Biodiversity and Multiple Ecosystem Services in Bioenergy Landscapes.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 4: 1652-1657.

“kind, black butter”: Heaney, Seamus. “Bogland” (1969). In Opened Ground: Selected Poems 1966-1996. Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1998.

“bog bodies”: Dell’Amore, Christine. “Who Were the Ancient Bog Mummies? Surprising New Clues.” National Geographic. July 18, 2014.

carbon content [of peat]: Parish, F., A. Sirin, D. Charman, H. Joosten, T. Minayeva, M. Silvius, and L. Stringer, eds. Assessment on Peatlands, Biodiversity and Climate Change: Main Report. Kuala Lumpur and Wageningen, The Netherlands: Global Environment Centre and Wetlands International, 2008.

[role during] Dutch Golden Age: de Zeeuw, Jan Willem. “Peat and the Dutch Golden Age. The Historical Meaning of Energy-Attainability.” AAG Bijdragen 21 (1978): 3-31.

peatlands [vs.] oceans [vs.] forests: Parish et al, Assessment; Scharlemann, Jörn P.W., Edmund V.J. Tanner, Roland Hiederer, and Valerie Kapos. “Global Soil Carbon: Understanding and Managing the Largest Terrestrial Carbon Pool.” Carbon Management, 5, no. 1 (2014): 81-91; Yu, Z., J. Loisel, D.P. Brosseau, D.W. Beilman, and S.J. Hunt. “Global Peatland Dynamics Since the Last Glacial Maximum.” Geophys. Res. Letts. 37 (2010): L13402.

[intact] peatlands…water retention: Joosten, Hans. The Global Peatland CO2 Picture: Peatland Status and Emissions in All Countries of the World. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wetlands International, 2009.

emit some methane: Strack, Maria, ed. Peatlands and Climate Change. Jyvaskyla, Finland: International Peat Society, 2008.

carbon per acre [vs.] other ecosystems: Parish et al, Assessment.

Fifteen percent [of peatlands disrupted]: Joosten, Picture.

Drained peatlands…emissions: Joosten, Picture.

Southeast Asia…fires and clearing: Page, Susan E., and A. Hooijer. “In the Line of Fire: The Peatlands of Southeast Asia.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371, no. 1696 (2016): 20150176.

Indonesia…in the top five emitters: World Resources Institute. CAIT Climate Data Explorer. http://cait2.wri.org.

[growing] risk of peatland fires: Turetsky, Merritt R., et al. “Global Vulnerability of Peatlands to Fire and Carbon Loss.” Nature Geoscience 8 (2015): 11–14.

mining…extracting…and draining: Strack, Peatlands.

bog [discovered in] Congo-Brazzaville: Morelle, Rebecca. “Colossal Peat Bog Discovered in Congo.” BBC News. May 27, 2014.

Indigenous and community-owned lands: Rights and Resources Initiative. Who Owns the World’s Land? A Global Baseline of Formally Recognized Indigenous and Community Land Rights. Washington, DC: Rights and Resources Initiative, 2015; Stevens, Caleb, Robert Winterbottom, Jenny Springer, and Katie Reytar. Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change: How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2014.

South and Southeast Asian home gardens: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

Home gardens…sequestration potential: Toensmeier, Solution.

Pastoralists; rangelands; soil carbon: McGahey, D., Davies, J., Hagelberg, N., and Ouedraogo, R. Pastoralism and the Green Economy—a Natural Nexus? Nairobi: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, United Nations Environment Programme, 2014.

community-managed forestland: Chao, Sophie. Forest Peoples: Numbers Across the World. Moreton-in-Marsh, UK: Forest Peoples Programme, 2012.

forest-dependent indigenous peoples: Krishnaswamy, Ajit, and Arthur Hanson, eds. Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development. Winnipeg: World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development, 1999.

tenure security…positive forest outcomes: Robinson, Brian E., Margaret B. Holland, and Lisa Naughton-Treves. “Does Secure Land Tenure Save Forests? A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Land Tenure and Tropical Deforestation.” Global Environmental Change 29 (2014): 281-293.

forest designated for or owned by indigenous peoples: Rights and Resources Initiative, Who Owns.

A quarter of the world’s forests: Tyrrell, Mary L., Jeffrey Ross, and Matthew Kelty. “Carbon Dynamics in the Temperate Forest.” In Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate, 77-107. Springer Netherlands, 2012.

[once] the epicenter of deforestation: FAO. State of the World’s Forests. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2016.

99 percent…altered in some way: Tyrrell et al, “Temperate Forest.”

1.9 billion acres…net-carbon sink: Pan, Yude, Richard A. Birdsey, Jingyun Fang, Richard Houghton, Pekka E. Kauppi, Werner A. Kurz, Oliver L. Phillips et al. “A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests.” Science 333, no. 6045 (2011): 988-993.

carbon [sequestered] each year: Pan et al, “Carbon Sink.”

1.4 billion…acres are candidates for restoration: Susan Minnemeyer, Lars Laestadius, Nigel Sizer, Carole Saint-Laurent, and Peter Potapov. A World of Opportunity. Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration, 2011.

Atlas of Forest and Landscape Restoration Opportunities: “Atlas of Forest and Landscape Restoration Opportunities.” http://www.wri.org/applications/maps/flr-atlas/#; Laestadius, L., K. Buckingham, S. Maginnis, and C. Saint-Laurent. “Before Bonn and Beyond: The History and Future of Forest Landscape Restoration.” Unasylva 66, no. 245 (2015): 11-18.

Ireland as opportunity area: Reytar, Katie. “7 Unexpected Places for Forest Landscape Restoration.” World Resources Institute. May 30, 2014.

carbon sink provided by U.S. forestland: Birdsey, Richard, Kurt Pregitzer, and Alan Lucier. “Forest Carbon Management in the United States.” Journal of Environmental Quality 35, no. 4 (2006): 1461-1469.

era of “megadisturbance”: Millar, Constance I., and Nathan L. Stephenson. “Temperate Forest Health in an Era of Emerging Megadisturbance.” Science 349, no. 6250 (2015): 823-826.

Monterey pine…most widely planted tree: Farjon, Aljos. Pinus radiata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/42408/0.

estimate…of carbon dioxide [sequestration]: Caldecott, Ben, Guy Lomax, and Mark Workman. “Stranded Carbon Assets and Negative Emissions Technologies.” Working paper. Oxford, UK: Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, 2015.

plantation forestry…forest cover…commercial wood: WWF. Living Forests Report: Chapter 4—Forests and Wood Products. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature, 2012.

China’s…“Great Green Wall”: Cao, Shixiong, Li Chen, David Shankman, Chunmei Wang, Xiongbin Wang, and Hong Zhang. “Excessive Reliance on Afforestation in China’s Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: Lessons in Ecological Restoration.” Earth-Science Reviews 104, no. 4 (2011): 240-245; Liu, Coco. “China’s Great Green Wall Helps Pull CO2 Out of Atmosphere.” Scientific American. April 24, 2015; Luoma, Jon. “China’s Reforestation Programs: Big Success or Just an Illusion?” Yale Environment 360. January 17, 2012.

“plantation conservation benefit”: Buongiorno, J., and S. Zhu. “Assessing the Impact of Planted Forests on the Global Forest Economy.” New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 44 (2014): 1–9.

New Generation Plantations: Payn, Tim, Jean-Michel Carnus, Peter Freer-Smith, Mark Kimberley, Walter Kollert, Shirong Liu, Christophe Orazio, Luiz Rodriguez, Luis Neves Silva, and Michael J. Wingfield. “Changes in Planted Forests and Future Global Implications.” Forest Ecology and Management 352 (2015): 57-67.

Akira Miyawaki…different method of afforestation: Miyawaki, Akira. “Restoration of Living Environment Based on Vegetation Ecology: Theory and Practice.” Ecological Research 19, no. 1 (2004): 83-90; JFS. “Plant Native Trees, Recreate Forests to Protect the Future: Respected Ecosystem Scientist Akira Miyawaki.” Japan for Sustainability Newsletter no. 103, March 2011.

part of planting…40 million trees: Lufkin, Bryan. “Akira Miyawaki Has Planted 40 Million Trees as a Tidal-Wave Shield.” Wired. January 6, 2014.

Miyawaki’s forests [vs.] a conventional plantation: Wakefield, Jane. “Grow Your Own Tiny Forest on the Web.” BBC News. October 8, 2014.

Afforestt…open-source methodology: Peters, Adele. “These Miniature Super-Forests Can Green Cities with Just A Tiny Amount Of Space.” Fast Company. October 27, 2014.

Jadav Payeng, the “forest-man of India”: Yashwant, Shailendra. “The Strange Obsession of Jadav Payeng.” Sanctuary Asia 32, no. 6, December 2012; McMaster, William Douglas. “The Man Who Built a Forest Larger Than Central Park.” Video on TheAtlantic.com. November 11, 2014.

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Transport

Curitiba, Brazil…Jaime Lerner: Adler, David. “Story of Cities #37: How Radical Ideas Turned Curitiba into Brazil’s ‘Green Capital.’” The Guardian, May 6, 2016.

dedicated lanes…installation costs [vs.] rail: Reed, Drew. “How Curitiba’s BRT Stations Sparked a Transport Revolution.” The Guardian. May 26, 2015.

Curitiba’s…passengers [vs.] London’s Tube: Adler, “Green Capital.”

bus rapid transit…replicated…worldwide: Global BRT Data. http://brtdata.org/.

transport sector…emissions: Sims R., R. Schaeffer, F. Creutzig, X. Cruz-Núñez, M. D’Agosto, D. Dimitriu, M.J. Figueroa Meza, L. Fulton, S. Kobayashi, O. Lah, A. McKinnon, P. Newman, M. Ouyang, J.J. Schauer, D. Sperling, and G. Tiwari. “Transport.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Urban transport…use of cars: Pyper, Julia. “Cars Will Cook the Planet Absent Shift to Public Transportation.” Scientific American. September 17, 2014.

United States…daily commuters: Cox, Wendell. “Evaluating Urban Rail.” NewGeography.com. December 5, 2014.

[vs.] Singapore and London: UN-HABITAT. Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility: Global Report on Human Settlements 2013. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2013.

fewer accidents and fatalities: Pourbaix, J. “Towards a Smart Future for Cities: Urban Transport Scenarios for 2025.” Public Transport International, 60, no. 3 (2011): 8-10.

transit…makes cities more equitable: Zhao, X., A. Mahendra, N. Godfrey,,H. Dalkmann, P. Rode, and G. Floater. Unlocking the Power of Urban Transit Systems for Better Growth and a Better Climate. London and Washington, D.C.: New Climate Economy, 2015.

“A train is a small society”: Gopnik, Adam. “The Plot Against Trains.” The New Yorker. May 15, 2015.

1964…Osaka-Tokyo route: Brasor, Philip, and Masako Tsubuku. “How the Shinkansen Bullet Train Made Tokyo into the Monster It is Today.” The Guardian. September 30, 2014.

miles of high-speed rails worldwide: UIC. High Speed Rail: Fast Track to Sustainable Mobility. Paris: International Union of Railways, 2015.

maglev train…between Shanghai and…airport: James, Randy. “A Brief History of High-Speed Rail.” TIME. April 20, 2009.

medium-distance (four-hour) [trips]: Chester, Mikhail, and Megan Smirti Ryerson. Environmental Assessment of Air and High-Speed Rail Corridors. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2013.

[share in] popular markets: Chester and Ryerson. Assessment.

Amtrak’s Acela service: Freemark, Yonah. “Why Can’t the United States Build a High-Speed Rail System?” CityLab. August 13, 2014.

California HSR system: Kelly, Brian P., and Mary D. Nichols. “Taking California’s Bullet Train to a Greener Future.” Los Angeles Times. January 29, 2014; Vartabedian, Ralph. “$68-billion California Bullet Train Project Likely to Overshoot Budget and Deadline Targets.” Los Angeles Times. October 24, 2015.

one of the major hurdles: cost: Ollivier, G., J. Sondhi, and N. Zhou. High-Speed Railways in China: A Look at Construction Costs. Beijing: The World Bank, 2014.

Northeast Corridor…high-speed rail system: Nixon, Ron. “$11 Billion Later, High-Speed Rail Is Inching Along.” New York Times. August 6, 2014.

traffic jams…public costs: Schrank, David, Bill Eisele, Tim Lomax, and Jim Bak. 2015 Urban Mobility Scorecard. Texas A&M Transportation Institute, 2015.

global trade…commercial vessels…[total] cargo: UNCTAD. Review of Maritime Transport 2015. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Secretariat, 2015.

Ships…[vs.] plane[s]: Mathers, Jason. Smart Moves: Creative Supply Chain Strategies Are Cutting Transport Costs and Emissions. New York: Environmental Defense Fund, 2012.

Shipping…emissions: Smith, T. W. P., et al. Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study 2014. London: International Maritime Organization, 2014.

ducktails…and compressed air: Almeida, Rob. “Part 1: How to Design a More Efficient Ship.” gCaptain. January 4, 2012. (Data from Wärtsilä.)

Energy Efficiency Design Index: ICCT. “The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for New Ships.” Policy update from the International Council on Clean Transportation. October 3, 2011.

A-to-G Greenhouse Gas Emissions Rating: Scott, Mike. “Sustainable Shipping Is Making Waves.” The Guardian. August 1, 2014.

port authorities…discount harbor fees: RightShip. Port Incentive Programs: Rewarding Sustainable Shipping. Melbourne, London, and Sugar Land, TX: RightShip, 2016.

sharkskin-like [hull] coating: U.S. Navy. “New Hull Coatings for Navy Ships Cut Fuel Use, Protect Environment.” Washington, D.C.: Office of Naval Research, 2009.

[impact of] “slow steaming”: Wang, Haifeng, and Nic Lutsey. Long-Term Potential for Increased Shipping Efficiency through the Adoption of Industry-Leading Practices. Washington, D.C.: International Council on Clean Transportation, 2013.

industry-leading ships [vs.] laggards: Haifeng and Lutsey, Shipping Efficiency.

[potential to] reduce shipping emissions: Haifeng and Lutsey, Shipping Efficiency.

low-grade bunker fuel [vs.] diesel: Wan, Zheng, Mo Zhu, Shun Chen, and Daniel Sperling. “Pollution: Three Steps to a Green Shipping Industry.” Nature 530 (2016): 275-277.

deaths…[from] particulate matter: Corbett, James J., James J. Winebrake, Erin H. Green, Prasad Kasibhatla, Veronika Eyring, and Axel Lauer. “Mortality from Ship Emissions: A Global Assessment.” Environmental Science and Technology-Columbus 41, no. 24 (2007): 8512.

International Maritime Organization…delay [on emissions]: Harvey, Fiona. “Shipping Industry Criticised for Failure to Reach Carbon Emissions Deal.” The Guardian. October 28, 2016.

first prototype…1828: DOE. “The History of the Electric Car.” Energy.gov. September 15, 2014; IEA. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2013.

Edison and Ford…“Electricity is the thing”: Strohl, Dan. “Ford, Edison, and the Cheap EV That Almost Was.” WIRED. June 18, 2010.

William Morrison; Charles Kettering: U.S. DOE. “The History of the Electric Car.” Energy.gov. September 15, 2014.

1 billion cars: Voelcker, John. “Two Billion Vehicles Projected to Be on Roads by 2035.” Christian Science Monitor. July 29, 2014; Sperling, Daniel, and Deborah Gordon. Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

1 million electric vehicles: IEA. Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond One Million Electric Cars. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2016.

Two-thirds of…oil consumption: IEA. Key World Energy Statistics. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2016.

Transport emissions: Sims R., R. Schaeffer, F. Creutzig, X. Cruz-Núñez, M. D’Agosto, D. Dimitriu, M.J. Figueroa Meza, L. Fulton, S. Kobayashi, O. Lah, A. McKinnon, P. Newman, M. Ouyang, J.J. Schauer, D. Sperling, and G. Tiwari. “Transport.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

number of motor vehicles…2035: Voelcker, “Two Billion”; Sperling and Gordon, Two Billion.

compared to gasoline-powered vehicles: U.S. DOE. “All-Electric Vehicles.” https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/evtech.shtml; U.S. DOE. “Where the Energy Goes: Electric Cars.” https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv-ev.shtml.

emission[s]…of gasoline [vs.] electricity: U.S. EPA. “Greenhouse Gases Equivalencies Calculator—Calculations and References.” https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gases-equivalencies-calculator-cal....

Sales volume; largest markets: IEA, EV Outlook.

Tesla…Model 3: Vlasic, Bill. “Tesla’s Model 3 Already Has 325,000 Preorders.” New York Times, April 7, 2016.

government car purchases: Shepardson, David. “Obama Orders Agencies to Cut Federal Vehicle Emissions.” Detroit News. March 19, 2015; “China Requires 30% of State Cars Use Alternative Energy.” Bloomberg News. July 13, 2014.

India…all-electric by 2030: “India Aims to Become 100% E-Vehicle Nation by 2030.” Economic Times. March 26, 2016.

electric buses…London: Liu, Cecily. “BYD Targets London's Iconic Double-Decker.” China Daily Europe. July 17, 2015; “End of the Road for London’s ‘Dirty’ Diesel Buses.” BBC News. November 30, 2016.

electric cars…range: Fleming, Charles. “Chevy Bolt EV Range is 238 Miles: Prime Time for the Electric Car?” Los Angeles Times. September 12, 2016.

network of charging stations: IEA, EV Outlook.

Projections [from] Bloomberg: Randall, Tom. “Here’s How Electric Cars Will Cause the Next Oil Crisis.” Bloomberg. February 25, 2016.

Oxford English Dictionary…ride-share: Steinmetz, Katy. “Oxford Dictionaries Adds Janky, EGOT and Ridesharing.” TIME. February 26, 2015. 

“ride alone…ride with Hitler!”: Pursell, Weimer. When You Ride Alone You Ride with Hitler! Government Printing Office for the Office of Price Administration, NARA Still Picture Branch, 1943. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/use_it_up/images_....

1970s, the heyday of ridesharing: Chan, Nelson D., and Susan A. Shaheen. “Ridesharing in North America: Past, Present, and Future.” Transport Reviews, 32, no. 1 (2012): 93-112.

2008…10 percent of Americans commuted jointly: Chan and Shaheen, “Ridesharing.”

[In] 100 cars…six carry another commuter: Polzin, Steven. “The Decline of Carpooling.” Planetizen. February 25, 2015.

BlaBlaCar…share long-distance trips: Buhr, Sarah. “France’s Singular Unicorn BlaBlaCar’s Secret to Scaling Fast Globally.” TechCrunch. December 8, 2015.

China…[Uber] pooled trips: Manjoo, Farhad. “Car-Pooling Helps Uber Go the Extra Mile.” New York Times. March 30, 2016.

Waze…for carpooling: Alba, Davey. “Google’s Waze Launches a Ridesharing Service in Israel.” WIRED. July 6, 2015.

Lyft…commuting feature: Siddiqui, Faiz. “Lyft Ditches Casual Carpooling, Citing a Lack of Driver Interest.” Washington Post. August 24, 2016.

Putnam…“bowling alone”: Putnam, Robert D. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Chinese e-bike owners: Ji, S., et al. “Electric Vehicles in China: Emissions and Health Impacts.” Environmental Science & Technology, 46, no. 4 (2012): 2018–2024.

“largest adoption of alternative fuel vehicles”: Cherry, Christopher. Quoted in Daniel Cusick “Can E-Bikes Displace Cars?” Scientific American. February 22, 2012.

China…e-bike sales: Mason, Jacob, Lew Fulton, and Zane McDonald. A Global High Shift Cycling Scenario. New York and Davis, CA: Institute for Transportation & Development Policy and the University of California–Davis, 2015.

urban trips…easy distance: Mason et al, Scenario.

more effective and affordable…[more] people: Fishman, Elliot, and Christopher Cherry. “E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research.” Transport Reviews, 36, no. 1 (2016): 72-91.

e-bikes sold in 2012: MacArthur, J., J. Dill, and M. Person. “Electric Bikes in North America: Results from an Online Survey.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2468 (2014): 123–130.

e-bikes…outperform cars…[most] mass transit: Cherry, C. R., J. X. Weinert, and Y. Xinmiao. “Comparative Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in China.” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 14, no. 5 (2009): 281–290; Fishman and Cherry, “Mainstream.”

[cost vs.] a classic bike: Gunther, Marc. “Will Electric Bicycles Get Americans to Start Pedaling?” Yale Environment 360. April 22, 2013.

lead acid batteries: Fishman and Cherry, “Mainstream.”

first…patent for an electric bicycle: Bolton, Ogden. U.S. Patent No. 552,271. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 1895.

Others…working to motorize [bicycles]: Roberts, Ronald. “Electric Bike History, Patents from the 1800’s.” ElectricBike.com. November 9, 2013.

fastest-selling alternative-fuel vehicles: Navigant. Electric Bicycles. Boulder, CO: Navigant Research, 2016.

83 million cars [manufactured] in 2013: PwC. Autofacts Global Industry Outlook. London: PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2014.

“light duty” vehicles…emissions: EPA. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2012. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014.

transportation sector’s…emissions: UNEP. Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme, 2009.

2013, 1.3 million…hybrid cars: IEA. Energy Technology Perspectives 2014. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2014.

fuel economy improvements: IEA. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles, Paris: International Energy Agency, 2012.

Lohner-Porsche Semper Vivus: Porsche. “Prof. Ferdinand Porsche Created the First Functional Hybrid Car.” Press release, Porsche Cars North America, New York, April 20, 2011. 

fuel economy regulations: Körner, Alex, and Sheila Watson, eds. Fuel Economy State of the World. London: Global Fuel Economy Initiative, 2016.

petrol car’s energy consumption: U.S. Department of Energy. “Where the Energy Goes: Gasoline Vehicles.” https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/atv.shtml.

99 percent…is waste: Hawken, Paul, and Amory Lovins. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. New York: Little Brown, 1999.

battery costs declin[ing]: National Research Council. Cost, Effectiveness, and Deployment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2015.

price premium, but…reduced fuel costs: IEA, Fuel Economy.

vehicle miles traveled…rebound effect: Gillingham, K., M. Kotchen, D. Rapson, and G. Wagner. “The Re-bound Effect is Overplayed.” Nature 493 (2013); Linn, Joshua. The Rebound Effect for Passenger Vehicles. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2013.

1 billion motor vehicles worldwide: Sperling, Daniel, and Deborah Gordon. Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009; Voelcker, John. “Two Billion Vehicles Projected to Be on Roads by 2035.” Christian Science Monitor. July 29, 2014.

By 2035…more than 2 billion: Voelcker, “Two Billion.”

first commercial flight: Associated Press. “Airline Group Marks 100 Years of Commercial Flight.” NBC News, June 2, 2014.

plane tickets…sold: “In Flight: See the Planes in the Sky Right Now.” The Guardian. January 21, 2014

air freight volume: Airbus. Mapping Demand: Global Market Forecast 2016-2035. Airbus, 2016.

airplanes…in service: Airbus, Mapping; Boeing. Current Market Outlook: 2015-2034. Boeing, 2015.

[airline] annual emissions: Lee, D.S., et al. “Aviation and Global Climate Change in the 21st Century.” Atmospheric Environment 43 (2009): 3520–3537; Schafer, A.W., et al. “Costs of Mitigating CO2 Emissions from Passenger Aircraft.” Nature Climate Change, 6, no. 4 (2016): 412-417. 

planes [in] the skies by 2040: Pearce, Fred. “After Paris, A Move to Rein in Emissions by Ships and Planes.” Yale Environment 360. May 19, 2016.

fuel…operating costs: Grose, Thomas K. “Reshaping Flight for Fuel Efficiency.” National Geographic. April 23, 2013.; Stalnaker, Tom, et al. Airline Economic Analysis: 2015-2016. Oliver Wyman, 2016.

fuel efficiency of domestic flights; international flights: Grose, “Reshaping.”

high rates of air bypass: BDL. Report 2014—Energy Efficiency and Climate Change, Berlin: Bundesverband der Deutschen Luftverkehrswirtschaft (German Aviation Association), 2015.

Pratt & Whitney…turbofan engine: Grose, “Reshaping.” 

Rolls-Royce…lightweight engines: BDL, Report 2014.

“winglets” and…“sharklets”: BDL, Report 2014; Davies, Alex. “Planes Have to Get More Efficient. Here’s How to Do It.” Wired. June 11, 2015.

split scimitar winglets: BDL, Report 2014.

Boeing and NASA…aircraft: Boeing. “Blended Wing Body Back to the Tunnel.” Boeing, September 7, 2016.

wing design with a brace: NASA. “Slimmed Down Aircraft Wing Expected to Reduce Fuel and Emissions by 50%.” National Aeronautics and Space Administration. November 9, 2016.

dramatic redesigns…efficiency gains: Grose, “Reshaping.”

taxiing on a single engine: Deonandan, Indira, and Hamsa Balakrishnan. “Evaluation of Strategies for Reducing Taxi-out Emissions at Airports.” 10th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, 2010.

continuous and late descent: BDL, Report 2014.

airline captains…fuel efficient practices: Gosnell, Greer K., John A. List, Robert Metcalfe. A New Approach to an Age-Old Problem: Solving Externalities by Incenting Workers Directly. NBER Working Paper No. 22316. Cambridge, M.A.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016.

sustainable aviation fuels: Rocky Mountain Institute. “Sustainable Aviation.” http://www.rmi.org/sustainable_aviation_fuels.

fuel efficiency and airline profitability: Zeinali, Mazyar, Daniel Rutherford, Irene Kwan, and Anastasia Kharina. U.S. Domestic Airline Fuel Efficiency Ranking 2010. Washington, D.C.: International Council on Clean Transportation, 2013.

Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation: Milman, Oliver. “First Deal to Curb Aviation Emissions Agreed in Landmark UN Accord.” The Guardian, October 6, 2016.

“The greenest gallon”: Anderson, Ray C. Confessions of a Radical Industrialist. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

domestic freight tonnage: Davis, Stacy C., Susan W. Diegel, and Robert G. Boundy. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and U.S. Department of Energy, 2016.

United States…[use] of diesel: ATA. “American Trucking Trends.” Arlington: American Trucking Association, 2011.

percent of vehicles…mileage…[and] fuel: The White House. Improving the Fuel Efficiency of American Trucks. Washington, D.C.: The White House, 2014; Davies, Alex. “Making Trucks More Efficient Isn’t Actually Hard to Do.” WIRED. June 24, 2015.

road freight…emissions: Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn, and Shigeki Kobyashi. “Transport and Its Infrastructure.” In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

[growth] outpacing…personal transportation: Eom, J., L. Schipper, and L. Thompson. “We Keep on Truckin’: Trends in Freight Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in 11 IEA Countries.” Energy Policy 45 (2012): 327–341.

modernizations…cost around $30,000: National Academy of Sciences. “Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles.” Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2010.

Payback…one to two years: Lee, Tessa Margaret, and Matthew Stanley Cullinen, eds. Road Transport: Unlocking Fuel-Saving Technologies in Trucking and Fleets. New York: The Carbon War Room Research and Intelligence Group, 2012.

Tractor-trailers…average [lifespan]: Lee and Cullinen, Road Transport.

reducing fuel use…yearly savings: Lee, Tessa, ed. Confidence Report: Idle-Reduction Solutions. New York: Carbon War Room and North American Council for Freight Efficiency, 2014.

Robert Heinlein…idea of telepresence: Heinlein, Robert A. Waldo & Magic, Inc. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1950.

Marvin Minsky… coined the term: Minsky, Marvin. “Telepresence.” OMNI Magazine. June 1980.

 [potential to] cut…emissions: Lee, Lisa, and Antonin Shanahan. The Telepresence Revolution. London: Carbon Disclosure Project, 2010.

Payback…one to two years: Lee and Shanahan, Revolution.

efficiency [improvements] in recent decades: IEA and UIC. Railway Handbook 2016: Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions. Paris: International Energy Agency and International Union of Railways, 2016.

rail…emissions: IEA and UIC, Handbook.

8 percent of…passengers and goods: IEA and UIC, Handbook.

hybrid diesel-electric…efficiencies: JR East Group. JR East Group Sustainability Report 2011. Tokyo: East Japanese Railway Company, 2011.

Amtrak…regenerative braking: UIC. World Rail Statistics. Paris: International Union of Railways, 2011.

electric trains [are] increasing: Eom, J., et al. “We Keep on Truckin’: Trends in Freight Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in 11 IEA Countries.” Energy Policy 45 (2012): 327–341.

“electrification…efficiency gain”: IEA. Transport, Energy, and CO2: Moving Toward Sustainability. Paris: International Energy Agency, 2009; Eom et al, “Trends.”

“ton-miles per gallon [vs.] trucks”: RMI. “Fuel Savings Potential Trucks vs. Rail Intermodal.” Rocky Mountain Institute, 2011.

steam locomotive…[vs.] diesel locomotive: Freudenrich, Craig. “How Trains Work.” HowStuffWorks.com. 2008.

1980…diesel [efficiency]: Palmer, Brian. “Let’s Make an Effort to Move More Freight by Rail and Less by Road. Trains are More Efficient.” Washington Post. March 3, 2014.

[countries driving] rail-sector emissions: IEA and UIC, Handbook.

[volumes of] passengers and…freight: GEA. Global Energy Assessment—Toward a Sustainable Future. Cambridge, UK, New York, and Laxenburg, Austria: Cambridge University Press and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2012.

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Materials

Waste production [growth]: Hoornweg, Daniel, Perinaz Bhada-Tata, and Chris Kennedy. “Waste Production Must Peak This Century.” Nature, 502 (2013): 615-617.

waste…generated at the household level: Hoornweg et al, “Peak.”

waste stream…candidates for recycling: Hoornweg et al, “Peak.”

recycled aluminum products: Hoornweg et al, “Peak.”

recycling rates of…cities: UN HABITAT. Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. London and Washington, D.C.: Earthscan, 2010.

Nigeria’s Wecyclers: Cathcart-Keays, Athlyn. “‘It’s Money Lying in the Streets’: Meet the Woman Transforming Recycling in Lagos.” The Guardian. October 21, 2015.

Pay-as-you-throw…San Francisco: Goldstein, James and Christi Electris. More Jobs, Less Pollution: Growing the Recycling Economy in the U.S. Boston: Tellus Institute, 2011.

single-stream recycling: Davis, Aaron C. “American Recycling is Stalling, and the Big Blue Bin is One Reason Why.” Washington Post. June 20, 2015.

newspaper volumes have plunged: Gunther, Marc. “Can Large Companies Lead the Low-Carbon Revolution?” Yale Environment 360. February 9, 2016.

Green Dot…labeling system: Winter, Debra. “The Violent Afterlife of a Recycled Plastic Bottle.” The Atlantic. December 4, 2015.

Targets…such as the European Union’s: European Commission. “Closing the Loop: Commission Adopts Ambitious New Circular Economy Package to Boost Competitiveness, Create Jobs and Generate Sustainable Growth.” Press release, Brussels, December 2, 2015; Collins, Sarah. “EU Struggling with Household Recycling Targets.” Euranet Plus News Agency. January 27, 2017.

Take, make, waste: Anderson, Ray C. Confessions of a Radical Industrialist. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

half of waste…outside households: Hoornweg, Daniel, and Perinaz Bhada-Tata. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2012.

e-waste…low-income countries: Baldé, C.P., F. Wang, R. Kuehr, and J. Huisman. The Global E-Waste Monitor—2014. Bonn, Germany: United Nations University, Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, 2015.

Extended producer responsibility: UN-Habitat. Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities, London and Washington, D.C.: UN-Habitat/Earthscan, 2010.

U.S. Materials Marketplace: Hepler, Lauren. “Materials Matchmaking: GM, Nike, and Scaling the Circular Economy.” GreenBiz. November 23, 2015.

Walter Stahel…“new technologies”: Stahel, Walter R. “The Circular Economy.” Nature 531, no. 7595 (2016): 435-438.

Pantheon temple in Rome: Moore, David. The Roman Pantheon: The Triumph of Concrete. Mangilao, Guam: MARC/CCEOP, University of Guam Station, 1995.

cement one of the most used substances: Scrivener, Karen L., Vanderley M. John, and Ellis M. Gartner. Eco-Efficient Cements: Potential, Economically Viable Solutions for a Low-CO2, Cement-Based Materials Industry. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2016.

Decarbonizing limestone…emissions: WBCSD and IEA. Cement Technology Roadmap 2009. World Business Council for Sustainable Development & International Energy Agency, 2009; Amato, Ivan. “Concrete Solutions.” Nature 494, no. 7437 (2013): 300-301. 

4.6 billion tons of cement: USGS. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2015. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey, 2015.

5 to 6 percent of society’s…emissions: Amato, “Green Cement”; Scrivener et al, Eco-Efficient Cements.

blast furnace slag [and] fly ash: Scrivener et al, Eco-Efficient Cements.

clinker substitution…avoid…emissions: Scrivener et al, Eco-Efficient Cements.

strength can…be higher: Amato, “Green Cement”; Crow, James Mitchell. “The Concrete Conundrum.” Chemistry World, March 2008: 62-66; WBCSD and IEA, Cement.

European Union reuses…fly ash: Moon, Steven T. “Regulatory and Legal Application: Fly Ash Use in Cement and Cementatious Products.” World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference, Lexington, KY, April 22-25, 2013.

New York City…ground bottle glass: Ellen Macarthur Foundation. The Circular Economy and the Promise of Glass in Concrete. Isle of Wight, UK: Ellen Macarthur Foundation, 2016.

Montreal Protocol: UNEP. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer: Final Act. United Nations Environment Programme, 1987.

ozone layer is beginning to heal: Solomon, Susan, et al. “Emergence of Healing in the Antarctic Ozone Layer.” Science 353, no. 6296 (2016): 269-274.

hydroflourocarbons [vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

2016…amendment to the Montreal Protocol: Davenport, Coral. “Nations, Fighting Powerful Refrigerant That Warms Planet, Reach Landmark Deal.” New York Times. October 15, 2016; Johnston, Chris, et al. “Climate Change: Global Deal Reached to Limit Use of Hydrofluorocarbons.” The Guardian. October 15, 2016.

John Kerry…“biggest thing we can do”: Davenport, “Landmark Deal.” 

reduce…warming…one degree Fahrenheit: Johnston et al, “Global Deal.”

[growth of] air-conditioning…by 2030: Shah, Nihar, Max Wei, Virginie Letschert, and Amol Phadke. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2015.

emissions…at end of life: Zhao, L., W. Zeng, and Z. Yuan. “Reduction of Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Room Air-Conditioner Refrigerants: A Life Cycle Carbon Footprint Analysis.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 100 (2015): 262–268.

destruction…to reduce emissions: World Bank. Study on Financing the Destruction of Unwanted Ozone-Depleting Substances through the Voluntary Carbon Market. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2010.

air-conditioning in…U.S. homes: HUD. American Housing Survey for the United States: 2009. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011.

in urban Chinese households: Shah et al, Leapfrogging.

paper use…on the rise: Nordström, Per-Ove, and Glen O’Kelly. “Tighter Recycled Fiber Markets: Softwood Strikes Back!” McKinsey on Paper, no. 3, 2013; Poyry. Future from Fibre: From Forest to Finished Product. Gland, Switzerland: World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2012.

half [of paper] is recovered: Nordström and O’Kelly, “Markets.”

Northern Europe…recovery rate: Hansen, Eric, Rajat Panwar, and Richard Vlosky. The Global Forest Sector: Changes, Practices, and Prospects. CRC Press, 2013.

South Korea…recovery rate: WWF. Living Forest Report. Chapter 4. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature, 2012.

emissions of the paper industry: EEPN. “Paper Vapour: The Climate Impact of Paper Consumption.” Lochinver, Scotland: European Environmental Paper Network, 2013.

piece of paper…reprocessed: Nordström and O’Kelly, “Markets.”

jobs and…economic value: R.W. Beck, Inc. U.S. Recycling Economic Information Study. National Recycling Coalition, 2001; Tellus Institute. From Waste to Jobs: What Achieving 75 Percent Recycling Means for California. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2014.

emissions [vs.] virgin [paper]: EEPN, “Paper Vapour.”

study [of emissions]: EEPN, “Paper Vapour.”

life cycle assessment: Schultz, Tobias. Life Cycle Assessment of Reincarnation 100 Coated Freesheet Paper, Compared to Virgin Paper Baseline. Emeryville, CA: SCS Global Services, 2015.

310 million tons of plastic: UNEP. Valuing Plastics: The Business Case for Measuring, Managing and Disclosing Plastic Use in the Consumer Goods Industry. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2014.

production [may] quadruple by 2050: WEF. The New Plastics Economy: Rethinking the Future of Plastics. Cologny/Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2016.

5 to 6 percent of…oil production: Chen, Ying Jian. “Bioplastics and Their Role in Achieving Global Sustainability.” Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6, no. 1 (2014): 226-231; Thompson, Richard C., et al. “Plastics, the Environment, and Human Health: Current Consensus and Future Trends.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364 (2009): 2153–2166; WEF, New Plastics.

90 percent…could be derived from plants: Shen, Li, et al. Product Overview and Market Projection of Emerging Bio-based Plastics. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, 2009.

earliest plastics [from] plant cellulose; billiards: 99% Invisible. “The Post-Billiards Age,” Podcast episode 164, 2015; American Chemical Society. “The Bakelizer.” Booklet to Commemorate the Designation of the Original Bakelizer as a National Historic Chemical Landmark. November 9, 1993.

Henry Ford…soybean car: The Henry Ford. “Soybean Car.” https://www.thehenryford.org/collections-and-research/digital-resources/....

invention of Bakelite, Leo Baekeland: American Chemical Society, “The Bakelizer.”

bio based and biodegradable: Chen, “Bioplastics.”

plastics end up in ecosystems [vs.] recycled: WEF, New Plastics.

outweigh fish in…oceans by 2050: WEF, New Plastics.

Hot water…residential energy use: Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana, et al. “Heating and Cooling Energy Trends and Drivers in Buildings.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41 (2015): 85-98.

average American…water [use] each day: Kenny, J. F., et al. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344, 2009.

used indoors…outdoors…lost to leaks: Inskeep, Benjamin D., and Shahzeen Z. Attari. “The Water Short List: The Most Effective Actions U.S. Households Can Take to Curb Water Use.” Environment. July-August 2014.

[efficient] toilets and…washing machines: Inskeep and Attari, “Short List.”

[impact of] efficient appliances and…fixtures: Inskeep and Attari, “Short List.”

older toilet [vs.] efficient one: NRDC. Water Efficiency Saves Energy. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2009.

behaviors…[that] reduce water use: Inskeep and Attari, “Short List.”

struggl[es] with water availability: Padowski, J., and J. Jawitz. “Water Availability and the Vulnerability of 225 Large Cities in the United States.” Water Resources Research 48 (2012): 1-16.

Nuclear and fossil fuel plants…water for cooling: Maupin, M.A., et al. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1405, 2014.

invisible gallons associated with [electricity]: NRDC, Water Efficiency.

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Coming Attractions

Yakutian horses: Librado, Pablo, Clio Der Sarkissian, Luca Ermini, Mikkel Schubert, Hákon Jónsson, Anders Albrechtsen, Matteo Fumagalli et al. “Tracking the Origins of Yakutian Horses and the Genetic Basis for their Fast Adaptation to Subarctic Environments.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 50 (2015): E6889-E6897.

1.4 trillion tons of carbon [buried in the Arctic]: Tarnocai, Charles, J. G. Canadell, E. A. G. Schuur, Peter Kuhry, G. Mazhitova, and S. Zimov. “Soil Organic Carbon Pools in the Northern Circumpolar Permafrost Region.” Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, no. 2 (2009).

Permafrost…is thawing; emissions: Harvey, Fiona. “1.5C Rise in Temperature Enough to Start Permafrost Melt, Scientists Warn.” The Guardian. February 21, 2013; Wolf, Adam. “The Big Thaw.” Stanford. September/October 2008.

soil…3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit colder: Zimov, Sergey A. Wild Field Manifesto. http://www.pleistocenepark.ru/files/WILD_FIELD_MANIFESTO_ENGLISH_VERSION....

von Humboldt’s description of climate change: Wulf, Andrea. The Invention of Nature: Alexander von Humboldt's New World. New York: Knopf, 2015.

[value of] frozen mammoth steppe: Wolf, Adam. “The Big Thaw.” Stanford Magazine. September-October 2008. https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=31018.

 

Additional Background Sources

Guthrie, R. Dale. Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: The Story of Blue Babe. University of Chicago Press, 2013.

Kintisch, Eli. “Born to Rewild.” Science 350, no. 6265 (2015): 1148-1151.

Lewis, Martin W. “Pleistocene Park: The Regeneration of the Mammoth Steppe?” GeoCurrents. April 12, 2012. http://www.geocurrents.info/place/russia-ukraine-and-caucasus/siberia/pl....

Zimov, Sergey A. “Pleistocene Park: Return of the Mammoth’s Ecosystem.” Science 308, no. 5723 (2005): 796-798.

Zimov, Sergey A., N. S. Zimov, and F. S. Chapin III. “The Past and Future of the Mammoth Steppe Ecosystem.” In Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation, 193-225. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.

Background Sources

Dunn, Joel. “Pasture Cropping: An Integrated Approach to Grain and Pasture Production.” Permaculture Research Institute. June 30, 2012. http://permaculturenews.org/2012/06/30/pasture-cropping-an-integrated-ap....

Finlayson, J. D., R. A. Lawes, Tess Metcalf, M. J. Robertson, David Ferris, and M. A. Ewing. “A Bio-Economic Evaluation of the Profitability of Adopting Subtropical Grasses and Pasture-Cropping on Crop—Livestock Farms.” Agricultural Systems 106, no. 1 (2012): 102-112.

Millar, G. D., and W. B. Badgery. “Pasture Cropping: A New Approach to Integrate Crop and Livestock Farming Systems.” Animal Production Science 49, no. 10 (2009): 777-787.

Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

White, Courtney. Grass, Soil, Hope: A Journey Through Carbon Country. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014.

White, Courtney. “Pasture Cropping: A Regenerative Solution from Down Under.” The Solutions Journal 4, no. 1 (2013): 69-75. https://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/article/pasture-cropping-a-regenerat....

fluctuations in the annual carbon cycle: NASA. Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). https://oco.jpl.nasa.gov.

“basalts…unlimited storage capacity”: Mooney, Chris. “They May Save Us Yet: Scientists Found a Way to Turn Our Carbon Emissions into Rock.” Washington Post. November 18, 2016.

 

Additional Background Sources

Curran, James C., and Samuel A. Curran. “An Estimate of the Climate Change Significance of the Decline in the Northern Hemisphere’s Uptake of Carbon Dioxide in Biomass.” Weather 71, no. 9 (2016): 226-227.

Dessert, Céline, Bernard Dupré, Jérôme Gaillardet, Louis M. François, and Claude J. Allegre. “Basalt Weathering Laws and the Impact of Basalt Weathering on the Global Carbon Cycle.” Chemical Geology 202, no. 3 (2003): 257-273.

Doney, Scott C., Victoria J. Fabry, Richard A. Feely, and Joan A. Kleypas. “Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem.” Annual Review of Marine Science 1 (2009): 169-192.

Gasser, T., Céline Guivarch, K. Tachiiri, C. D. Jones, and P. Ciais. “Negative Emissions Physically Needed to Keep Global Warming Below 2°C.” Nature Communications 6 (2015): 7958.

Hartmann, Jens, A. Joshua West, Phil Renforth, Peter Köhler, Christina L. De La Rocha, Dieter A. Wolf‐Gladrow, Hans H. Dürr, and Jürgen Scheffran. “Enhanced Chemical Weathering as a Geoengineering Strategy to Reduce Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Supply Nutrients, and Mitigate Ocean Acidification.” Reviews of Geophysics 51, no. 2 (2013): 113-149.

Keenan, Trevor F., I. Colin Prentice, Josep G. Canadell, Christopher A. Williams, Han Wang, Michael Raupach, and G. James Collatz. “Recent Pause in the Growth Rate of Atmospheric CO2 Due to Enhanced Terrestrial Carbon Uptake.” Nature Communications 7 (2016): 13428.

Köhler, Peter, Jens Hartmann, and Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow. “Geoengineering Potential of Artificially Enhanced Silicate Weathering of Olivine.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 47 (2010): 20228-20233.

Köhler, Peter, Jesse F. Abrams, Christoph Völker, Judith Hauck, and Dieter A. Wolf-Gladrow. “Geoengineering Impact of Open Ocean Dissolution of Olivine on Atmospheric CO2, Surface Ocean PH, and Marine Biology.” Environmental Research Letters 8, no. 1 (2013): 014009.

Matter, Juerg M., W. S. Broecker, S. R. Gislason, E. Gunnlaugsson, E. H. Oelkers, M. Stute, H. Sigurdardóttir et al. “The CarbFix Pilot Project—Storing Carbon Dioxide in Basalt.” Energy Procedia 4 (2011): 5579-5585.

Matter, Juerg M., Martin Stute, Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdottir, Eric H. Oelkers, Sigurdur R. Gislason, Edda S. Aradottir, Bergur Sigfusson et al. “Rapid Carbon Mineralization for Permanent Disposal of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions.” Science 352, no. 6291 (2016): 1312-1314.

McGrail, B. Peter, Herbert T. Schaef, Frank A. Spane, John B. Cliff, Odeta Qafoku, Jake A. Horner, Christopher J. Thompson, Antoinette T. Owen, and Charlotte E. Sullivan. “Field Validation of Supercritical CO2 Reactivity with Basalts.” Environmental Science & Technology Letters 4, no. 1 (2017): 6-10.

Moosdorf, Nils, Phil Renforth, and Jens Hartmann. “Carbon Dioxide Efficiency of Terrestrial Enhanced Weathering.” Environmental Science & Technology 48, no. 9 (2014): 4809-4816.

Oelkers, Eric H., Sigurdur R. Gislason, and Juerg Matter. “Mineral Carbonation of CO2.” Elements 4, no. 5 (2008): 333-337.

Renforth, Phil. “The Potential of Enhanced Weathering in the UK.” International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 10 (2012): 229-243.

Renforth, Philip, PAE Pogge von Strandmann, and G. M. Henderson. “The Dissolution of Olivine Added to Soil: Implications for Enhanced Weathering.” Applied Geochemistry 61 (2015): 109-118.

Schuiling, R. D., and P. Krijgsman. “Enhanced Weathering: An Effective and Cheap Tool to Sequester CO2.” Climatic Change 74, no. 1 (2006): 349-354.

NOTE: This piece was written with input from Brian Von Herzen of the Climate Foundation (http://www.climatefoundation.org).

“these great aquatic forests”: Darwin, Charles. The Voyage of the Beagle: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle Round the World. New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1909. 

nature…subordinate to human alteration: McKibben, Bill. The End of Nature. New York: Random House, 1989.

the Anthropocene: Carrington, Damian. “The Anthropocene Epoch: Scientists Declare Dawn of Human-Influenced Age.” The Guardian. August 29, 2016.

primary forest in Borneo: Myers, Norman. The Primary Source: Tropical Forests and Our Future. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.

“We are growing water”: Life in Syntropy. 2015. Vimeo video. Agenda Gotsch. https://vimeo.com/146953911.

heat…absorbed into the surface waters: Rhein, M., S.R. Rintoul, S. Aoki, E. Campos, D. Chambers, R.A. Feely, S. Gulev, G.C. Johnson, S.A. Josey, A. Kostianoy, C. Mauritzen, D. Roemmich, L.D. Talley and F. Wang. “Observations: Ocean.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

annual decline in…plankton and kelp: Boyce, Daniel G., Marlon R. Lewis, and Boris Worm. “Global Phytoplankton Decline Over the Past Century.” Nature 466, no. 7306 (2010): 591-596.

Silvopasture…1.1 billion acres worldwide: Nair, P. K. R. “Climate Change Mitigation: A Low-Hanging Fruit of Agroforestry.” In Agroforestry—The Future of Global Land Use, edited by P. K. Ramachandran Nair and Dennis Garrity, 31–67. Springer Netherlands, 2012.

carbon [sequestered] per acre: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

developed in Australia in the 1970s: Toensmeier, Solution.

Species biodiversity; Stocking rates; Meat production: Toensmeier, Solution; Cuartas Cardona, César A., Juan F. Naranjo Ramírez, Ariel M. Tarazona Morales, Enrique Murgueitio Restrepo, Julián D. Chará Orozco, Juan Ku Vera, Francisco J. Solorio Sánchez, Martha X. Flores Estrada, Baldomero Solorio Sánchez, and Rolando Barahona Rosales. “Contribution of Intensive Silvopastoral Systems to Animal Performance and to Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change.” Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias 27, no. 2 (2014): 76-94.

intensive silvopasture…five hundred thousand acres: Toensmeier, Solution.

five-year study of intensive silvopasture: Cuartas et al, “Contribution.”

energy efficiency [of photosynthesis]: Blankenship, Robert E., David M. Tiede, James Barber, Gary W. Brudvig, Graham Fleming, Maria Ghirardi, M. R. Gunner et al. “Comparing Photosynthetic and Photovoltaic Efficiencies and Recognizing the Potential for Improvement.” Science 332, no. 6031 (2011): 805-809.

corn-based ethanol: Charles, Chris, and Ivetta Gerasimchuk, Richard Bridle, Tom Moerenhout, Elisa Asmelash, Tara Laan. Biofuels—At What Cost? A Review of Costs and Benefits of EU Biofuel Policies. Winnipeg: The International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2013; Conca, James. “It’s Final—Corn Ethanol Is of No Use.” Forbes. April 20, 2014; Smith, Pete, Mercedes Bustamante, Helal Ahammad, Harry Clark, Hongmin Dong, Elnour A. Elsiddig, Helmut Haberl et al. “Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU).” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

pound of hydrogen…[vs.] gasoline: U.S. DOE. “Hydrogen basics.” Alternative Fuels Data Center. http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/hydrogen_basics.html.

energy source…shared by everybody: Owen, David. “The Artificial Leaf: Daniel Nocera’s Vision for Sustainable Energy.” The New Yorker. May 14, 2012.

breakthrough [by] Nocera and…Pamela Silver: Liu, Chong, Brendan C. Colón, Marika Ziesack, Pamela A. Silver, and Daniel G. Nocera. “Water Splitting–Biosynthetic System with CO2 Reduction Efficiencies Exceeding Photosynthesis.” Science 352, no. 6290 (2016): 1210-1213.

more efficient than photosynthesis: Richard Martin. “A Big Leap for an Artificial Leaf.” MIT Technology Review. June 7, 2016.

Paradise and Iron: Breuer, Miles J., and Michael R. Page. The Man with the Strange Head and Other Early Science Fiction Stories. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008.

idea of self-driving vehicles: LaFrance, Adrienne. “Your Grandmother’s Driverless Car.” The Atlantic. June 29, 2016.

AVs…by 2040: Newcomb, Doug. “You Won’t Need a Driver’s License by 2040.” Wired. September 17, 2012.

$2 trillion per year; 4 percent of the time: Zimmer, John. “The Third Transportation Revolution: Lyft’s Vision for the Next Ten Years and Beyond.” The Road Ahead (blog). September 18, 2016. https://medium.com/@johnzimmer/the-third-transportation-revolution-27860....

700 million parking spaces: Chester, Mikhail, Aprad Horvath, and Samer Madanat. “Parking Infrastructure and the Environment.” ACCESS Magazine 1, no. 39 (2011).

Electrics…[vs.] gasoline-powered vehicles: Sims, R., R. Schaeffer, F. Creutzig, X. Cruz-Núñez, M. D’Agosto, D. Dimitriu, M.J. Figueroa Meza, L. Fulton, S. Kobayashi, O. Lah, A. McKinnon, P. Newman, M. Ouyang, J.J. Schauer, D. Sperling, and G. Tiwari. “Transport.” In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Thomas Frey [on] driverless-car era: Frey, Thomas. “128 Things That Will Disappear in the Driverless Car Era.” April 5, 2016. Futurist Speaker (blog). http://www.futuristspeaker.com/job-opportunities/128-things-that-will-di....

injuries and auto-related deaths: Ramsey, Mike. “Self-Driving Cars Could Cut Down on Accidents, Study Says.” Wall Street Journal. March 5, 2015.

Automobiles and trucks…emissions: Sims et al, “Transport.”

U.S. auto fleet would decline: Strauss, Steven. “As the age of autonomous vehicles nears, why are policy wonks focused on the past?” Los Angeles Times. November 6, 2015.

“third transportation revolution”: Zimmer, “Revolution.”

100 million more people…in American cities: Kotkin, Joel. The Next Hundred Million: America in 2050. New York: Penguin, 2010.

Background Sources

Grobart, Sam. “This Device Could Provide a Third of America’s Power.” Bloomberg. April 12, 2016.

Mofur, Linus, Jarett Goldsmith, and Fliss Jones. Ocean Energy Technology Readiness, Patents, Deployment Status, and Outlook. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency, 2014.

Oscilla Power. http://oscillapower.com.

“Waving Good Buy?” The Economist. November 7, 2015.

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED): USGBC. “LEED.” http://www.usgbc.org/leed.

Living Building Challenge; “petals”: ILFI. Living Building Challenge 3.1: A Visionary Path to a Regenerative Future. Seattle: International Living Future Institute, 2016.

“red-listed” materials: ILFI, Challenge.

buildings in various stages of certification: ILFI. “Registered and Certified Project Map.” https://living-future.org/lbc/basics/#buildings-around-the-world.

cost of living buildings; provable return: Cowan, Stuart, Stuart Cowan, Brent Davies, David Diaz, Noah Enelow, Kevin Halsey, and Kathryn Langstaff. Optimizing Urban Ecosystem Services: The Bullitt Center Case Study. Portland, OR: Ecotrust, 2014; Graves, Richard, Amy Cortese, Ralph Dinola, Steve Clem, and Elizabeth Heider. Net Zero and Living Building Challenge Financial Study: A Cost Comparison Report for Buildings in the District of Columbia. Vancouver, WA: New Buildings Institute.

restrictive building codes: O’Brien, Kathleen, Nicole DeNamur, and Elizabeth Powers. “Legal Hurdles Faced by Deep Green Buildings: Case Studies and Recommendations.” Washington Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 3 (2013): 125.

 

Additional Background Sources:

Deng, S., R. Z. Wang, and Y. J. Dai. “How to Evaluate Performance of Net Zero Energy Building–A Literature Research.” Energy 71 (2014): 1-16.

Hernandez, Patxi, and Paul Kenny. “From Net Energy to Zero Energy Buildings: Defining Life Cycle Zero Energy Buildings (LC-ZEB).” Energy and Buildings 42, no. 6 (2010): 815-821.

Sartori, Igor, Assunta Napolitano, and Karsten Voss. “Net Zero Energy Buildings: A Consistent Definition Framework.” Energy and Buildings 48 (2012): 220-232.

“mine the sky”: Deich, Noah, and Giana Amador. “How to Build a Billion-Dollar Industry to Fight Climate Change.” GreenBiz. March 31, 2016. https://www.greenbiz.com/article/how-build-billion-dollar-industry-fight....

[cost] per ton of carbon dioxide: Deich, Noah. “Socratic Dialogue on Direct Air Capture.” Center for Carbon Removal (blog). March 9, 2016. http://www.centerforcarbonremoval.org/blog-posts/2016/3/6/socratic-dialo....

 

Additional Background Sources

Broecker, Wally. “Does Air Capture Constitute a Viable Backstop Against a Bad CO2 Trip?” Elementa 1 (2013).

Deich, Noah. “Direct Air Capture Explained in 10 Questions.” Center for Carbon Removal (blog). September 24, 2015. http://www.centerforcarbonremoval.org/blog-posts/2015/9/20/direct-air-ca....

Deich, Noah. “Socratic Dialogue on Direct Air Capture.” Center for Carbon Removal (blog). March 9, 2016. http://www.centerforcarbonremoval.org/blog-posts/2016/3/6/socratic-dialo....

Goeppert, Alain, Miklos Czaun, GK Surya Prakash, and George A. Olah. “Air as the Renewable Carbon Source of the Future: An Overview of CO2 Capture from the Atmosphere.” Energy & Environmental Science 5, no. 7 (2012): 7833-7853.

Gunther, Marc. “Rethinking Carbon Dioxide: From a Pollutant to an Asset.” Yale Environment 360. February 23, 2012.

Gunther, Marc. “Startups Have Figured Out How to Remove Carbon from the Air. Will Anyone Pay Them to Do It?” The Guardian. July 14, 2015.

Kintisch, Eli. “Can Sucking CO2 Out of the Atmosphere Really Work?” MIT Technology Review. October 7, 2014.

Lackner, Klaus S., Sarah Brennan, Jürg M. Matter, A-H. Alissa Park, Allen Wright, and Bob van der Zwaan. “The Urgency of the Development of CO2 Capture from Ambient Air.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, no. 33 (2012): 13156-13162.

Lavelle, Marianne. “Out of Thin Air: The Quest to Capture Carbon Dioxide.” National Geographic. August 12, 2011.

McLaren, Duncan. “A Comparative Global Assessment of Potential Negative Emissions Technologies.” Process Safety and Environmental Protection 90, no. 6 (2012): 489-500.

Nemet, Gregory F., and Adam R. Brandt. “Willingness to Pay for a Climate Backstop: Liquid Fuel Producers and Direct C02 Air Capture.” The Energy Journal 33, no. 1 (2012): 53-82.

Plumer, Brad. “It’s Time to Look Seriously at Sucking CO2 out of the Atmosphere.” Vox. July 13, 2015.

Socolow, Robert, Michael Desmond, Roger Aines, Jason Blackstock, Olav Bolland, Tina Kaarsberg, Nathan Lewis et al. Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals: A Technology Assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs. College Park, MD: American Physical Society, 2011.

gallon of gasoline…prehistoric biomass: Dukes, Jeffrey S. “Burning Buried Sunshine: Human Consumption of Ancient Solar Energy.” Climatic Change 61, no. 1 (2003): 31-44.

“inflection point in human history”: Grossman, Lev. “Inside the Quest for Fusion, Clean Energy’s Holy Grail.” Time. October 21, 2015.

private enterprise entered the field: Clery, Daniel. “Fusion’s Restless Pioneers.” Science 345, no. 6195 (2014): 370-375.

2015…half of the Holy Grail: Clery, Daniel. “Mystery Company Blazes a Trail in Fusion Energy.” Science. June 2, 2015.

Hydrogen-boron fusion…no waste: Rothrock, Ray. “What’s the Big Idea: A Venture Capitalist Takes on Fusion Energy.” Issues in Science and Technology 32, no. 2 (2016): 55-60.

requires…5.4 billion degrees Fahrenheit: Clery, Daniel. “Secretive Fusion Company Claims Reactor Breakthrough.” Science. August 24, 2015.

plasma state…indefinitely sustained: Binderbauer, M. W., T. Tajima, L. C. Steinhauer, E. Garate, M. Tuszewski, L. Schmitz, H. Y. Guo et al. “A High Performance Field-Reversed Configuration.” Physics of Plasmas 22, no. 5 (2015); Guo, H. Y., M. W. Binderbauer, T. Tajima, R. D. Milroy, L. C. Steinhauer, X. Yang, E. G. Garate et al. “Achieving a Long-Lived High-Beta Plasma State by Energetic Beam Injection.” Nature communications 6 (2015).

Large Hadron Collider: McKie, Robin. “The Large Hadron Collider Sets Its Sights on Dark Matter.” The Guardian. January 4, 2015.

U.S. National Highway System: U.S. Federal Highway Administration. “Our Nation’s Highways: 2011.” https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/pubs/hf/pl11028/chapter1.cfm.

Ray C. Anderson [and] Interface: Anderson, Ray C. Confessions of a Radical Industrialist. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.

The Ray…first sustainable highway: The Ray. http://theray.org.

network of paved roads…throughout the Roman Empire: Hitchner, R. Bruce. “Roads, Integration, Connectivity, and Economic Performance in the Roman Empire.” In Highways, Byways, and Road Systems in the Pre-Modern World, edited by Susan E. Alcock, John P. Bodel, and Richard J. A. Talbert, 222-234. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

carbon dioxide [emissions] along the…corridor: Dagenhart, Richard, et al. The Future of Highways. Atlanta: Georgia Conservancy and School of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2014.

state of Georgia…EV registrations: U.S. Department of Energy. “Georgia Sets the Pace for Plug-In Electric Vehicles.” Alternative Fuels Data Center. February 3, 2015.

road surfaces…for solar generation: Wattway. “Paving the Way to Tomorrow’s Energy.” Press kit. October 2015.

“Route 66 of the future”: Kelion, Leo, and Colin Grant. “Motorway of the Future Uses Glow-In-the Dark Road Paint.” BBC News. May 1, 2013; Studio Roosegaarde. “Smart Hightway.” https://www.studioroosegaarde.net/project/smart-highway/info/.

New York City…pneumatic tube mail system: Cohen, Robert A. “The Pneumatic Mail Tubes: New York’s Hidden Highway and Its Development.” In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Underground Freight Transport by Capsule Pipelines and Other Tube/Tunnel Systems, Columbia, Missouri, pp. 189-202. 1999.

vision of the Hyperloop: Musk, Elon. Hyperloop Alpha. 2013. https://www.tesla.com/sites/default/files/blog_attachments/hyperloop_alp....

Robert Goddard…imagined vactrains in 1910: “The Future of Transport: No Loopy Idea.” The Economist. August 17, 2013.

difficult challenge…700 miles per hour: Arieff, Allison. “Can a 700 M.P.H. Train in a Tube Be for Real?” New York Times. May 19, 2016.

agreement with Dubai’s Port of Jebel Ali: Phillips, Erica E. “Hyperloop Technology to Be Studied as Shipping Tool.” Wall Street Journal. August 16, 2016.

door-to-door pod system…in Dubai: Hanif, Nadeem. “Abu Dhabi to Dubai in 12 Minutes? World’s First Hyperloop Coming to UAE.” The National. November 8, 2016.

routes…for cargo: Reynolds, Emily. “Russia Signs Deal for Its Own Version of Hyperloop: Pilot System Could Provide a High-Speed Route Between Moscow and St. Petersburg.” Wired. June 22, 2016; Reynolds, Emily. “Is ‘Hyperloop’ Really Coming to Europe?” Wired. July 6, 2016.

routes from Bratislava to Budapest and Vienna: Guerrini, Federico. “First Hyperloop Track Might Be Built Between Vienna And Budapest.” Forbes. March 10, 2016.

“Transportation is the new broadband”: Bradley, Ryan. “The Unbelievable Reality of the Impossible Hyperloop.” MIT Technology Review. May 10, 2016.

the Jevons paradox: Owen, David. “The Efficiency Dilemma.” The New Yorker. December 20 & 27, 2010.

soil microbiome…[and] human microbiome: Montgomery, David R., and Anne Biklé. The Hidden Half of Nature: The Microbial Roots of Life and Health. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2016.

nitrous oxides…[vs.] carbon dioxide: Myhre, Gunnar, Drew Shindell, François-Marie Bréon, William Collins, Jan Fuglestvedt, Jianping Huang, Dorothy Koch et al. “Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.” In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

agriculture…emissions: Gilbert, Natasha. “One-Third of Our Greenhouse Gas Emissions Come from Agriculture.” Nature. October 31, 2012.

9 billion people in 2050: DESA. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings, and Advance Tables. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2015.

life creates the conditions conducive to life: Benyus, Janine M. Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.

 

Background Sources

Barth, Brian. “Microbes Will Feed the World, or Why Real Farmers Grow Soil, Not Crops.” Modern Farmer. April 22, 2014. http://modernfarmer.com/2014/04/microbes-will-feed-world-real-farmers-gr....

Charles, Dan. “Mighty Farming Microbes: Companies Harness Bacteria to Give Crops a Boost.” All Things Considered. National Public Radio. June 12, 2015. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/06/12/413692617/mighty-farming-....

Dance, Amber. “Soil Ecology: What Lies Beneath.” Nature 455 (2008): 724-725.

Gans, Jason, Murray Wolinsky, and John Dunbar. “Computational Improvements Reveal Great Bacterial Diversity and High Metal Toxicity in Soil.” Science 309, no. 5739 (2005): 1387-1390.

Mole, Beth. “Fertilizer Produces Far More Greenhouse Gas Than Expected.” Science News. June 9, 2014. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/fertilizer-produces-far-more-greenho....

yield of bast…per acre: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

Cotton…insecticide use: Environmental Justice Foundation. The Deadly Chemicals in Cotton. London: Environmental Justice Foundation and Pesticide Action Network UK, 2007.

[deaths] from pesticide poisoning: Rustin, Susanna. “Cotton Trade: Where Does Your T-Shirt Grow?” The Guardian. August 9, 2014.

emissions…from cotton: Ton, Peter. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to Mitigate and Adapt. Geneva: International Trade Centre, 2011.

revenue…compared to wheat: Fine, Doug. “A Tip for American Farmers: Grow Hemp, Make Money.” Los Angeles Times. June 25, 2014.

cost of hemp fiber…[vs.] wood pulp: Mitchell, Dan. “Why Legalized Hemp Will Not Be a Miracle Crop.” Modern Farmer. October 17, 2013. http://modernfarmer.com/2013/10/legal-industrial-hemp-wont-matter/.

Hu Jintao…increase China’s cultivation: Fine, “Tip.”

human beings began to cultivate annuals: Chatterjee, Rhitu. “Farming Got Hip in Iran Some 12,000 Years Ago, Ancient Seeds Reveal.” National Public Radio. July 5, 2013. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/07/08/198453031/farming-got-hip....

rice…in Asia; corn…in Mesoamerica: “The Development of Agriculture.” National Geographic Genographic Project. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/development-of-agriculture/.

efforts to breed perennial staple crops: Toensmeier, Eric. The Carbon Farming Solution. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2016.

rice…wild ancestors: Khush, Gurdev S. “Origin, Dispersal, Cultivation and Variation of Rice.” Plant Molecular Biology 35 (1997): 25-34.

perennial wheat: FAO. Perennial Crops for Food Security: Proceedings of the FAO Expert Workshop. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013; Lubofsky, Evan. “The Promise of Perennials: Working Through the Challenges of Perennial Grain Crop Development.” Crops, Soils, Agronomy News 61, no. 11 (2016): 4-7.

Seaweeds…used as livestock feed: Makkar, Harinder P.S., Gilles Tran, Valérie Heuzé, Sylvie Giger-Reverdin, Michel Lessire, François Lebas, and Philippe Ankers. “Seaweeds for Livestock Diets: A Review.” Animal Feed Science and Technology 212 (2016): 1-17.

Prince Edward Island…dairy farmer: Battaglia, Michael. “Seaweed Could Hold the Key to Cutting Methane Emissions from Cow Burps.” The Conversation. October 12, 2016.

Methane…dropped…on Dorgan’s diet: Kinley, R. D., and A. H. Fredeen. “In Vitro Evaluation of Feeding North Atlantic Stormtoss Seaweeds on Ruminal Digestion.” Journal of Applied Phycology 27, no. 6 (2015): 2387-2393.

methane waste expelled…through burps: Battaglia, “Seaweed.”

39 percent of [livestock] emissions: Gerber, P.J., et al. Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock: A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013.

a quarter of…methane pollution: Reay, D., et al. “Methane Sources and the Global Methane Budget.” In Methane and Climate Change, edited by D. Reay et al, 1-14. London: Earthscan, 2010.

Australia, methane…emissions: Henry, Beverley, Ed Charmley, Richard Eckard, John B. Gaughan, and Roger Hegarty. “Livestock Production in a Changing Climate: Adaptation and Mitigation Research in Australia.” Crop and Pasture Science 63, no. 3 (2012): 191-202.

Asparagopsis taxiformis: Guiry, M.D., and G.M Guiry. AlgaeBase. Galway: National University of Ireland. 2016. http://www.algaebase.org.

results…artificial rumen: Kinley, Robert D., Rocky de Nys, Matthew J. Vucko, Lorenna Machado, and Nigel W. Tomkins. “The Red Macroalgae Asparagopsis Taxiformis Is a Potent Natural Antimethanogenic That Reduces Methane Production During In Vitro Fermentation with Rumen Fluid.” Animal Production Science 56, no. 3, 2016: 282-289; Machado, Lorenna, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A. Paul, Robert Kinley, Rocky de Nys, and Nigel Tomkins. “Dose-Response Effects of Asparagopsis Taxiformis and Oedogonium Sp. On In Vitro Fermentation and Methane Production.” Journal of Applied Phycology 28, no. 2, 2016: 1443-1452; Machado, Lorenna, Marie Magnusson, Nicholas A. Paul, Rocky de Nys, and Nigel Tomkins. “Effects of Marine and Freshwater Macroalgae On In Vitro Total Gas and Methane Production.” PLoS One 9, no. 1 (2014): e85289.

results…live sheep: Li, Xixi, Hayley C. Norman, Robert D. Kinley, Michael Laurence, Matt Wilmot, Hannah Bender, Rocky de Nys, and Nigel Tomkins. “Asparagopsis Taxiformis Decreases Enteric Methane Production from Sheep.” Animal Production Science (2016); Rupp, Rebecca. “A Sprinkle of Seaweed Could Deflate Gassy Cows.” National Geographic. November 29, 2016.

energy…[lost] to waste methane: Van Nevel, C. J., and D. I. Demeyer. “Control of Rumen Methanogenesis.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 42, no. 1-2 (1996): 73-97.

[population of] cows…sheep and goats: Robinson, Timothy P., GR William Wint, Giulia Conchedda, Thomas P. Van Boeckel, Valentina Ercoli, Elisa Palamara, Giuseppina Cinardi, Laura D’Aietti, Simon I. Hay, and Marius Gilbert. “Mapping the Global Distribution of Livestock.” PloS one 9, no. 5 (2014): e96084.

[scale] of seaweed farms: Kirby, David. “How to Stop Farts from Warming the Planet: Feed Cows Seaweed.” TakePart. October 25, 2016.

Feed production and processing…emissions: Gerber et al, Livestock.

limu kohu…“pleasing seaweed”: Guiry and Guiry, AlgaeBase.

livestock methane…percent of greenhouse gases: Gerber et al, Livestock.

NOTE: This piece was adapted, with permission from the author, from: Smith, Bren. “The Coming Green Wave: Ocean Farming to Fight Climate Change.” The Atlantic. November 23, 2011.

“many of the mistakes of industrial farming”: New York Times Editorial Board. “About That Salmon.” New York Times. July 31, 2011.

“restore instead of deplete”: Barber, Dan. How I Fell in Love with Fish. TED talk. February 2010. https://www.ted.com/talks/dan_barber_how_i_fell_in_love_with_a_fish?lang....

Nitrogen…“planetary boundary”: Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton et al. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature 461, no. 7263 (2009): 472-475.

kelp…lithium-ion batteries: Cass, Stephen. “Battery Storage Could Get a Huge Boost from Seaweed.” MIT Technology Review. September 8, 2011.

“the equivalent of striking oil”: University of California, Berkeley. “Common Algae Can Be Valuable Source of Hydrogen Fuel.” ScienceDaily. February 23, 2000. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/02/000223071940.htm.

smart grids [potential] emissions reductions: IEA. Technology Roadmap: Smart Grids, Paris: International Energy Agency, 2011.

pioneers such as South Korea: Bulkin, Bernie. “South Koreans are Leading the Way in Their Vision for ‘Smart Grid.” The Guardian. May 2, 2014.

both utilities and users [can] save money: Gellings, Clark, et al. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power Research Institute, 2011.

[descriptions of] current grid: Bakke, Gretchen. The Grid: The Fraying Wires Between Americans and Our Energy Future. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2016; Weeks, Jennifer. “U.S. Electrical Grid Undergoes Massive Transition to Connect to Renewables.” Scientific American. April 28, 2010.

United States…investment [and return]: Gellings et al, Smart Grid.

timber-framed buildings [in ancient] China: Fu, Xinian. “Architecture Technology.” In A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 3, edited by Yongxiang Lu, 1-194. Springer, 2015.

Hōryū-ji Temple…Ikaruga, Japan: UNESCO, World Heritage Centre. “Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area.” http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/660.

[multi]-story apartment building[s]: Cathcart-Keays, Athlyn. “Wooden Skyscrapers Could Be the Future of Flat-Pack Cities Around the World.” The Guardian. October 3, 2014; Callaghan, Greg. “New Wood: How It Will Change Our Skyline.” Sydney Morning Herald. August 27, 2016; Risen, Clay. “The World’s Most Advanced Building Material Is…Wood.” Popular Science. March 2014.

Glulam…in British churches and schools: Slavid, Ruth. Wood Architecture. London: Laurence King, 2005.

cross-laminated timber…“new concrete”: Risen, “Wood.”

dry wood is 50 percent carbon: Oliver, Chadwick Dearing, Nedal T. Nassar, Bruce R. Lippke, and James B. McCarter. “Carbon, Fossil Fuel, and Biodiversity Mitigation with Wood and Forests.” Journal of Sustainable Forestry 33, no. 3 (2014): 248-275.

Cement…emissions: Amato, Ivan. “Green Cement: Concrete Solutions.” Nature 494, no. 7437 (2013): 300-301; Scrivener, Karen L., Vanderley M. John, and Ellis M. Gartner. Eco-Efficient Cements: Potential, Economically Viable Solutions for a Low-CO2, Cement-Based Materials Industry.” Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme, 2016.

steel beams…fossil fuel [use]: Oliver et al, “Wood and Forests.”

[potential to] reduce annual global emissions: Oliver et al, “Wood and Forests.”

high-performance products…fire resistant: Gerard, Robert, David Barber, and Armin Wolski. Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings. Quincy, MA: Fire Protection Research Foundation, 2013.

cost-effective and stronger than ever: Green, Michael C. and J. Eric Karsh. The Case for Tall Wood Buildings: How Mass Timber Offers a Safe, Economical, and Environmentally Friendly Alternative for Tall Building Structures. mgb Architecture + Design, 2012.

Ise Jingu…in Mie, Japan: Vallely, Paul. “History in the Making: An Unprecedented Visit to Ise Jingu, Japan’s Holiest Shrine, to See It Rebuilt Under the Beliefs of the Shinto Religion.” The Independent. June 22, 2014.

U.S. Tall Wood Building Prize: USDA. “U.S. Tall Wood Building Prize Competition Winners Revealed.” Press release. U.S. Department of Agriculture, New York, September 17, 2015.

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