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Aerial view of small neighborhood garden plots.

Aerial view of small neighborhood garden plots.

Table of Solutions

Here, we present the individual solutions reviewed and assessed by Project Drawdown, including their relevant sector(s) and their impact on reducing heat-trapping gases. This list is extensive but not exhaustive, and we continue to add to it as a living project.

Project Drawdown uses different scenarios to assess what determined, global efforts to address climate change might look like. Both scenarios shown here are plausible and economically realistic. Drawdown Scenario 1 is roughly in-line with 2˚C temperature rise by 2100, while Drawdown Scenario 2 is roughly in-line with 1.5˚C temperature rise at century’s end.

The results shown here are based on projected emissions impact globally. The relative importance of a given solution can differ significantly depending on context and particular ecological, economic, political, or social conditions. We invite a deeper dive into the many particularities and nuances of all of these solutions.

 

To sort solutions alphabetically, click on solution. To rank by emissions impact, click on Scenario 1 or Scenario 2.

* Gigatons CO2 Equivalent Reduced / Sequestered (2020–2050)

Solution Sector(s) Scenario 1 * Scenario 2 *
Smart Thermostats Electricity / Buildings 6.99 7.40
Building Automation Systems Electricity / Buildings 6.47 10.48
LED Lighting Electricity 16.07 17.53
Insulation Electricity / Buildings 16.97 19.01
Dynamic Glass Electricity / Buildings 0.29 0.47
High-Performance Glass Electricity / Buildings 10.04 12.63
Green and Cool Roofs Electricity / Buildings 0.60 1.10
District Heating Electricity / Buildings 6.28 9.85
High-Efficiency Heat Pumps Electricity / Buildings 4.16 9.29
Solar Hot Water Electricity / Buildings 3.59 14.29
Low-Flow Fixtures Electricity / Buildings 0.91 1.56
Water Distribution Efficiency Electricity 0.66 0.94
Building Retrofitting Electricity / Buildings
Net-Zero Buildings Electricity / Buildings 0.00 0.00
Concentrated Solar Power Electricity 18.60 23.96
Distributed Solar Photovoltaics Electricity 27.98 68.64
Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaics Electricity 42.32 119.13
Micro Wind Turbines Electricity 0.09 0.13
Onshore Wind Turbines Electricity 47.21 147.72
Offshore Wind Turbines Electricity 10.44 11.42
Geothermal Power Electricity 6.19 9.85
Small Hydropower Electricity 1.69 3.28
Ocean Power Electricity 1.38 1.38
Biomass Power Electricity 2.52 3.57
Nuclear Power Electricity 2.65 3.23
Waste-to-Energy Electricity / Industry 2.04 3.00
Landfill Methane Capture Electricity / Industry 2.18 -1.60
Methane Digesters Electricity / Industry 9.83 6.18
Grid Flexibility Electricity 0.00
Microgrids Electricity
Distributed Energy Storage Electricity
Utility-Scale Energy Storage Electricity
Plant-Rich Diets Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 65.01 91.72
Reduced Food Waste Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 87.45 94.56
Forest Protection Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 5.52 8.75
Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 8.69 12.93
Grassland Protection Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 3.35 4.25
Peatland Protection and Rewetting Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 26.03 41.93
Coastal Wetland Protection Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Coastal and Ocean Sinks 0.99 1.45
Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 1.36 0.68
Conservation Agriculture Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 13.40 9.43
Regenerative Annual Cropping Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 14.52 22.27
Nutrient Management Food, Agriculture, and Land Use 2.34 12.06
Farm Irrigation Efficiency Food, Agriculture, and Land Use 1.13 2.07
Improved Rice Production Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 9.44 13.82
System of Rice Intensification Food, Agriculture, and Land Use / Land Sinks 2.78 4.26
Alternative Cement Industry 7.98 16.10
Bioplastics Industry 0.96 3.80
Composting Industry 2.14 3.13
Recycling Industry 5.50 6.02
Recycled Paper Industry 1.10 1.95
Refrigerant Management Industry / Buildings 57.75 57.75
Alternative Refrigerants Industry / Buildings 43.53 50.53
Walkable Cities Transportation 1.44 5.45
Bicycle Infrastructure Transportation 2.56 6.65
Electric Bicycles Transportation 1.31 4.07
Carpooling Transportation 7.70 4.17
Public Transit Transportation 7.51 23.36
High-Speed Rail Transportation 1.30 3.77
Telepresence Transportation 1.05 3.80
Hybrid Cars Transportation 7.89 4.63
Efficient Trucks Transportation 4.61 9.71
Electric Trains Transportation 0.10 0.65
Electric Cars Transportation 11.87 15.68
Efficient Ocean Shipping Transportation 4.40 6.30
Efficient Aviation Transportation 6.27 9.18
Biogas for Cooking Buildings 4.65 9.70
Improved Clean Cookstoves Buildings 31.34 72.65
Temperate Forest Restoration Land Sinks 19.42 27.85
Tropical Forest Restoration Land Sinks 54.45 85.14
Managed Grazing Land Sinks 16.42 26.01
Silvopasture Land Sinks 26.58 42.31
Multistrata Agroforestry Land Sinks 11.30 20.40
Tree Intercropping Land Sinks 15.03 24.40
Perennial Staple Crops Land Sinks 15.45 31.26
Perennial Biomass Production Land Sinks 4.00 7.04
Abandoned Farmland Restoration Land Sinks 12.48 20.32
Tree Plantations (on Degraded Land) Land Sinks 22.24 35.94
Bamboo Production Land Sinks 8.27 21.31
Coastal Wetland Restoration Coastal and Ocean Sinks 0.77 1.01
Biochar Production Engineered Sinks 2.22 4.39
Health and Education Health and Education 85.42 85.42
997.17
1576.47